方案设计单位 厦门合立道工程设计集团一院一致建筑工作室ONENESS STUDIO
The train station serves as the starting point for a journey in a city. In Xiamen Island, the train station area also serves as the junction between natural mountainous terrain and the bustling urban area. Jinbang Elementary School is located on the eastern side of Xiamen Station, nestled by the mountainside.
Wanshi Mountain - Dongping Mountain is the largest green lung of Xiamen Island, extending in the southern part of the island. With a suitable elevation, lush vegetation, and charming scenery, these mountain ranges send out numerous 'green veins.' As they extend into the urban area, they provide a visible green backdrop and hills for panoramic views, enhancing Xiamen, known as the 'Garden on the Sea.' The starting station of the Yingxia Railway was originally set in the northern foothills of the central part of these mountains, with the station square facing the sea (now Yundang Lake) and Jinbang Square overlooking the mountains, offering unique scenic views. Nowadays, Xiamen Island has become a city nucleus with a population exceeding two million. The demand for primary and secondary school education is enormous, leading to the establishment of many new schools. On the east side of Jinbang Square, in a mountainous hollow, a new Jinbang Elementary School will be constructed.
The site used to have grain warehouses and a large vehicle yard. After the formation of new urban roads, the site became cramped and irregular. The ground was completely hardened due to the functional requirements, and the mountain near the road became steep with exposed rocks, becoming a scar of natural mountain forest displayed in the city. It is crucial for the city to repair the scars on the land, resolve the inappropriate height differences, large areas of hardened surfaces, and the current inefficient land use on the site. The design team, navigating between nature and the urban environment, seeks a harmonious and seamless way to connect the mountain and the city, promoting mutual enhancement. The team also strategically integrates the functional requirements of the school. A trace of Dongping Mountain entering the city is preserved, and it lies adjacent to the irregular site from east to west, bringing about a unique campus layout that deviates from conventional thinking - 'Aggregation, Extension, Spread, and Coverage,' leaning against the mountain and adapting to the terrain."
The interplay of mountains and sea defines the primary geographical form of Xiamen Island, especially the southern range of Wanshi Mountain to Dongping Mountain near Yuanxian Lake, and the northern range of Huxi Mountain to Xianyue Mountain. These mountain ranges serve as iconic backdrops for numerous architectural clusters on both sides of the lake, creating a picturesque scenery with their graceful silhouettes. Against the backdrop of the beautiful mountain contours, buildings are arranged in varying heights and levels. The reflections of mountains and buildings shimmer on the surface of Yuanxian Lake, bridging the gap between the city, people, and nature.Over the century-long development of Xiamen, land reclamation and mountain excavation have been simultaneous processes, gaining more land for survival but also eroding the natural environment. Today, the consensus is to protect the mountains, vegetation, and maintain the silhouette of the mountain range. The significance of the mountain range in shaping the urban skyline is acknowledged by all.
Across from Jinbang Square, a lush green barrier with continuous mountainous terrain forms a backdrop for the new architectural clusters. How will these buildings, immersed in the verdant surroundings, present themselves? Following the line of sight from a distance, these structures should seamlessly become part of the mountain. The design team opted for a relatively intensive form strategy, with the main buildings nestled into the mountain hollows, connecting in a staggered manner. The steep side of the hollow is transformed into rhythmic terraces. Along the western side of the mountain range entering the city, the sports area's buildings are laid out against the mountain, using long and low volumes to protect the mountain and continue its gentle slope. The mountain range becomes the backdrop, embracing the campus. The architectural clusters, with varied elevations, present a harmonious and friendly urban form on the eastern side of Jinbang Road. The open and inviting space showcases the continuous tapestry of campus landscapes and activities, presenting a positive and harmonious interaction between nature, people, and the city from top to bottom.
The new campus buildings are clustered in the mountain hollow, with open faces towards the west-facing city road. The campus's east and south sides are adjacent to the lower-altitude areas of the mountain, with a continuous range of mountains in the southeast, where the prevailing wind direction typically originates. While reshaping the ground, the design team adopted several nested courtyards organized in an orderly combination. The majority of the ground floors of each building are elevated, allowing the natural greenery and wind to flow between the high and low platforms.
The open interfaces around each courtyard facilitate clear lines of sight and convenient connections. The valley wind travels up the slope, gently brushing the greenery, passing through courtyards and corridors, and rising through atriums. This airflow improvement mitigates the adverse effects of the local hot and humid climate during spring and summer, guiding fresh forest air into the campus for a refreshing atmosphere inside and outside the classrooms. The wind-guiding strategy of elevated courtyards not only reduces air conditioning energy consumption but also creates a light and open architectural posture.
Each courtyard is themed and strategically equipped with activity spaces tailored to the local conditions, providing students with a variety of options for extracurricular interactions. Landscape courtyards, elevated spaces, and sloping platforms cover the hillsides, allowing students to move freely between different elevations, enjoying the mountainous and courtyard pleasures regardless of the weather.
The design strategy chosen aims at creating a friendly connection between the mountain and the city, turning the school buildings into terraces extending from the mountain to the urban landscape. The buildings are elevated and interconnected on multiple platforms, forming a campus that acts as an accessible panoramic platform group. On the western side of the mountain facing the city, the rooftops at different elevations serve as ideal spots for both distant views and mutual observation. The sports field, being the largest platform, embraces the mountains and overlooks the street scenes. Its broad vista and ample sunlight attract children to engage in activities, allowing them to immerse themselves in the greenery while observing the city. People on Jinbang Road can look at the school, situated by the green mountains near the train station. The staggered and stacked terraces and rooftops create multiple circular paths, envisioning children freely running out of classrooms during breaks to different elevations for panoramic views—one side with mountains, the other with the city.