Wanjin Primary School is located in Saihan District, Hohhot City, Inner Mongolia, north of Jinquan Street and west of Hulunbeier South Road. The project is built on an L-shaped site, which is 36 degrees south by east, 268 meters long from north to south, 206 meters wide from east to west, and covers an area of 20000 ㎡. It is a 48-class complete primary school radiating the surrounding community.
▲ 方案效果动画 ©泛泰设计
The shortage of land for the project fully reflects the outstanding contradiction between the demand of a large number of urbanized people for educational buildings and the shortage of educational infrastructure under the current urbanization background.
The dense high-rise residential buildings around the site make the sky in the eyes of children become relatively narrow, and then the harsh sunshine conditions become the first difficulty in the design.
In addition, the surrounding community environment is messy, lacking educational infrastructure and public space for young people to communicate. The monotonous infrastructure and environment cannot meet the needs of students, and a large number of classes are needed to meet the quota needs of surrounding communities. Therefore, the second difficulty of the design arises: a 48-class complete primary school needs to be built on a 20000 ㎡ site.
First of all, the design adopts the method of filling the site with the main teaching building and raising the ground floor to maximize the shared functions and outdoor activity space. At the same time, even in bad weather, teachers and students can also carry out outdoor activities under the elevated ground floor; The roof of the overhead ground floor and the 200m runway playground on the roof of the semi basement gymnasium on the south side are designed to form a large borderless outdoor activity space on the same elevation.
The large overhead space on the first floor is combined with the entrance of the school, in which a reading room and an exhibition hall are set. At the same time, the large overhead space is also the connecting port of various sports functions and canteens. In order to make the space more lively and diverse, the arc-shaped building shape is adopted, which also makes the complex traffic streamline better arranged here. Different forms of daylighting courtyards are designed for different functions, and sunlight is introduced and green plants are planted to stimulate students to discover and explore.
Ordinary classrooms are set on the second floor and above, and students can directly reach the outdoor retreat platform through corridors of different elevations, which eliminates the inconvenience of activities caused by different building heights, and allows students of all grades to have free activities between classes, get close to nature in the sun, and are no longer limited to the narrow inner corridor space. At the same time, it also increases the sense of hierarchy of public activity space. In addition, in terms of spatial form, the "Book Mountain Steps" are highly consistent with the stair like lecture hall below.
The designer designed two circular runways in the compact land: a 200m standard circular runway and a football field are set on the roof of the semi-underground gymnasium, which are the main spaces for students to carry out professional training, hold competitions, do morning exercises and play between classes; On the roof of the main teaching building, through the integrated design of the equipment room and the evacuation staircase, a 300m circular runway was successfully set up. In addition, a continuous straight stair from the natural ground to the top roof is set to ensure that each floor of the teaching building can easily reach the activity space on the roof.
In the design, supporting functions such as restaurants and kitchens, as well as basketball halls and natatoriums are adjusted to the underground. Through roof lifting and combined with sinking courtyards, sunlight and air are introduced into the underground to ensure the quality of underground space.
With the continuous development of society, the traditional single teaching model has been unable to meet the needs of educational development. At the beginning of the design, we considered using design means to help schools reform and innovate the teaching model, so as to create a diversified learning exploration space to meet the growth needs of children to the greatest extent.
Therefore, in terms of functional planning, in order to eliminate the boundaries between grades, teachers and students, between functions, between indoor and outdoor, a variety of public spaces are set up, such as interest space, outdoor book mountain steps, sharing platform, school history exhibition hall, reading room, etc., to create a one-stop multi-dimensional compound campus space, so as to meet students' daily communication and exploration, and cultivate students' love for science.
In the context of urbanization, in addition to the scarcity of educational facilities, the public sports space provided to citizens is also very scarce. Traditional communities and schools are often separated by a wall, resulting in a waste of resources in school sports facilities. Therefore, in the planning, the designer considered the possibility of sharing the school resources with the surrounding communities, so as to realize the symbiosis between the community and the campus in the later operation process. Among the many activity spaces, sports courts, basketball halls, swimming pools and other facilities are specially considered, which can be opened to the public at night and on holidays through management.
In addition to sports facilities, the underground garage has also been planned for use in different periods of time:
During this period, the underground garage is provided for school teachers and students' parents, and several independent rest stations are designed to relieve traffic pressure and potential social security problems during peak hours.
During this period, the underground garage will be provided for nearby residents to maintain the construction and operation of the basement. In the early stage of design, we considered the streamline organization of students and social personnel on campus, and designed a large modern underground parking lot to fundamentally solve the problem of students' access to and from school and students' personal safety.
In addition, relevant sharing functions are considered to be open to the public all day on Sundays and holidays.
Two sets of traffic flow lines are designed for the traffic organization of teachers and students inside the campus and external social personnel. The externally shared functions have complete flow lines in their own areas, which do not intersect with the independent functional areas of the campus, and independent entrance lobbies and vertical traffic are designed for the external flow of people.
In the design, we have considered not only the superposition and interpenetration of large-scale bodies and the use of different skin forms, but also the shaping of small-scale spaces, such as "Book Mountain Steps", "Fairy Tale Cabin", "Blue Planet", "Time Hemisphere" and other interesting spaces. In terms of structure, various structural forms such as the large-span hollow floor, steel structure hemisphere, suspension cable and large cantilever are adopted. As an educational building, the building itself is an exhibit and a textbook nearby, which is the main environment for students to learn and grow. Good design has a subtle impact on students in their learning and life, so the design of educational buildings should be given considerable attention.
We hope to take this opportunity to discuss a model with wide applicability in the school design process, as an innovative exploration of the current primary school development model, and through this primary school design attempt, reposition the role that such public buildings should play in social public life, so as to stimulate community vitality and play a greater role. At the same time, in the face of many problems exposed, we give our thoughts and answers to this problem through design. It may not be the best answer, but it is a positive and fruitful attempt.