The Dawan Fire Station in Shenzhen is located on the south side of Biyadi Road in Pingshan District. It is surrounded by tall buildings, creating a strong sense of oppression. Therefore, we have positioned the fire station on the north side, adjacent to the main road, while reserving a large garden on the south side as a "breathing space." This design aims to create a compact fire station in the midst of skyscrapers.
The project site is located at the intersection of Biyadi Road and Zhongxin Road in Pingshan District, Shenzhen. It is bordered by Pingshan Court on the east, Wanyuefu Residential Community on the southwest, and faces Dawan Cultural Square across Biyadi Road on the north. The surrounding area is surrounded by a large number of high-rise buildings, creating a strong sense of pressure.
The project site has an area of 4255.14 square meters and is classified as a Grade 1 fire station. It has the capacity to accommodate 8 fire trucks. The plot ratio is 0.94, and the total construction area is 5016.05 square meters. This includes a three-story fire business building, a seven-story training tower, and one underground floor. The calculated permissible construction area is 3998.15 square meters, while the non-permissible construction area is 1017.90 square meters. It is a typical "centralized" fire station located in a densely populated main urban area, surrounded by high-rise buildings.
Due to the unique surrounding environment of Dawan fire Station, it becomes the biggest challenge to scientifically and reasonably layout the fire station on a constrained site. If we strictly follow the setback requirements typically imposed in Shenzhen, the land area and shape will not be able to meet the operational needs. Additionally, it is crucial for the building to harmonize with the surrounding site. Therefore, after conducting a thorough study and engaging in discussions with the planning authorities, the setback requirements for Dawan fire Station were negotiated to achieve a relatively reasonable compromise: a 3-meter setback on the east side, a 2.3-meter setback on the south side, a 2.2-meter setback on the west side, and a 4-meter setback on the north side.
Due to the limited space available, Dawan Fire Station can only adopt a compact "centralized" layout. The site is surrounded by high-rise buildings on the east, south, and west sides, creating a strong sense of pressure and significantly impacting the layout. As a result, the building is positioned towards the northeast side to provide as much open space as possible within the site. This approach aims to improve both the working and living conditions for firefighters at the station.
In order to meet the requirement of a 1-minute rapid response for the fire station, we have transformed the traditional "inner courtyard" style of the fire station into the "street-facing" design of the new fire station. The fire truck garage now directly faces Biyadi Avenue on the northeast side. The width of the garage's vehicle exit is 48 meters, with a distance of 20 meters from the roadside, allowing for an open "breathing space" around the station.
The project site has its main entrance located on the north side, facing Biyadi Road. This entrance includes the fire truck garage exit and the vehicle dispatch square, which serve as access points for firefighters when responding to emergencies and returning to the station. On the northwest side, there is a pedestrian main entrance for both firefighters and visitors. The secondary entrance on the west side serves as an access point for logistics and the basement area.To maximize the available space, the fire training grounds, running track, and basketball court are situated on the south side of the site. This design allows for a larger garden area, providing a spacious "breathing space" for the station.
Dawan Fire Station adopts a "centralized" layout, consisting of a three-story, 13.8-meter-high business building and a seven-story, 35-meter-high training tower. The surrounding area of the site is heavily influenced and constrained, requiring a careful arrangement of the station building, vehicle dispatch square, and training grounds to effectively address the conflicts between the project and the surrounding environment.
The fire trucks are directly dispatched from the street, significantly improving the efficiency of emergency responses. The ground floor serves as the parking area for eight fire trucks, allowing for quick access and deployment. The main entrance is located on the north side of the site, serving as the primary access point for firefighters and visitors entering the fire station. The public access areas are located on the first and second floors.The fire truck garage faces Biyadi Road. The first floor accommodates the entrance hall, dining area, inflatable room, and other facilities. The second floor houses the standby room, officer's office, and squadron offices. Supporting facilities such as restrooms and showers are located on the northeast side. The third floor consists of rooms for firefighting operations and auxiliary functions. The basement primarily functions as an emergency rescue warehouse and equipment room, with its entrance located on the south side of the building.
In addition, several rooftop gardens are incorporated into the building design, enhancing the living environment for firefighters. The project also adopts green building practices and sponge city technology. Measures such as rooftop orchards and sunken green spaces are implemented to absorb and retain rainwater, effectively controlling on-site stormwater runoff. These initiatives contribute to the sustainability and environmental friendliness of the fire station.
The main entrance of Dawan Fire Station is located on the north side, providing access for firefighters and visitors. On weekends and holidays when the station is open for public visits, visitors can use the building elevators to reach the second-floor corridor. From there, they can observe the fire truck garage and the green orchard on the roof of the garage, as well as have a panoramic view of the training grounds.For scheduled visits, a well-planned route ensures that the open areas are visited without affecting the closed areas where daily training and operations take place. Management points are established at the connection between the open and closed areas to maintain the separation and ensure that the visits do not interfere with the firefighters' regular training and duties.
Based on the standardized design for fire stations in Shenzhen, we have optimized and upgraded the design of Dawan Fire Station by incorporating personalized elements and adopting a more modern and minimalist approach. The use of contrasting materials, interplay of building masses, and folded plates combine to create an intensive and compact form that clearly expresses the relationship between the building's functionality and its form.Furthermore, design techniques such as facade openings, partial voids, rooftop gardens, and vertical grilles are employed to adapt to the hot and rainy climate of the Lingnan region. The square and dignified architectural form also presents Dawan Fire Station as a solemn and steadfast "guardian of safety."