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非洲当代艺术博物馆:如何将42根混凝土管变为一处文化中心? / Heatherwick Studio

非洲当代艺术博物馆:如何将42根混凝土管变为一处文化中心? / Heatherwick Studio
李菁琳 | 2018.01.17 19:00

Heatherwick Studio

www.heatherwick.com

 

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蔡茨非洲当代艺术博物馆 ©Photography by Iwan Baan

如何将42根垂直的混凝土管改造成为一处当代文化中心?

来自伦敦的建筑事务所Heatherwick Studio在南非开普敦的V&A码头给出了一个很酷的答案。

 

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基地鸟瞰 ©Navigator Films

自1920年代起,位于开普敦V&A码头的这处粮仓就已经开始储存、沉淀来自整个南非的谷物了。1990年代停止使用后,它的业主V&A码头(Victoria & Alfred Waterfront)找到英国建筑事务所Heatherwick Studio,希望对粮仓及其周边场地进行改造。虽然码头所在的区域已经具有一定的活力,但仍旧缺少一个重量级的文化机构。

Since the 1920s, the prominent grain silo on Cape Town’s stored and graded co from all over South Africa.After it was decommissioned in the 1990s its owners, the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, approached the studio to develop ideas for adapting the silo and its site. Although the waterfront was already a vibrant area, it lacked a major cultural institution. 

 

与此同时,蔡茨基金会(Zeitz Foundation)正在寻找一个能够永久存放他们来自非洲及其侨民的当代艺术品的空间,两者一拍即合。于是,开普敦这处粮仓就被决定改造成为蔡茨非洲当代艺术博物馆(The Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa,Zeitz MOCAA)了。

At the same time, the Zeitz Foundation was seeking a new permanent home for their collection of contemporary art from Africa and it’s diaspora. The two programmes coincided, and it was decided that the grain silo would be transformed into a new museum for contemporary art from Africa and its diaspora. 

 

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远眺博物馆 ©Photography by Iwan Baan
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近观博物馆 ©Photography by Iwan Baan

尽管这个筒仓混合体看起来像是个单一结构的建筑,实际上它由两个部分组成:一座楼层分明的塔楼和42个垂直的蜂窝状筒仓。如何将这些紧密集合在一起的混凝土筒仓转换成为适合陈列展品的空间,同时又保持建筑的工业特色,是本次改造的最大挑战。

Though the concrete building looks like a single structure, it is composed of two parts: a grading tower and forty-two tall, cellular silos. The main challenge was to convert these tightly packed concrete tubes into spaces suitable for displaying art while retaining the building’s industrial heritage. 

 

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设计概念模型 © Heatherwick Studio

 

最终,建筑师在筒仓内部开凿出一个形似拱顶教堂的中庭,使之成为博物馆的核心。中庭在建筑的中央开出一个个洞口,通往围绕着中庭布置的各层展览区域。

We developed a concept to carve out an atrium, like a vaulted cathedral, to form the museum’s heart. Scooped from the building’s centre, it provides access to the gallery floors that are organised around the central atrium. 

 

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设计概念剖面图 © Heatherwick Studio

要实现开凿管道的想法极具挑战性。以玉米粒的形状为原型,建筑师在27米高的体量中挖凿出了一系列圆形洞口,每个洞口都标示着其所在的筒仓;并利用半伸入的钢筋将这些易碎的、仅有170毫米厚的混凝土管道排列起来。

Realising the concept of carved tubes was technically challenging. Modelled on a single grain of co, the rounded shape was scaled up to fill the 27-metre-high volume and then translated into thousands of coordinates, each defining a point within the silo’s tubes. Mapped out physically with nails, the brittle concrete tubes only 170mm thick were then lined with partial inner sleeves of reinforced concrete. 

 

新的钢筋混凝土筒拥有420毫米的厚度,从旧筒仓切割下来的部分正是被填充进了这里。建筑师对既有的管道进行了修剪,使4600立方米的中庭呈现出弯曲的几何形态。切割的边缘被磨光并加上镜面,与建筑粗糙的混凝土整体形成对照。

The new concrete sleeves created a stable composite structure 420mm thick and provided a cutting guide for removing portions of the old silos. The existing tubes were pared back to reveal the curved geometries of the 4,600 cubic metre atrium. The cut edges were polished to give a mirrored finish that contrasts with the building’s rough concrete aggregate.

 

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改造后的中庭 ©Photography by Iwan Baan

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博物馆室内 ©Photography by Iwan Baan

每一个弯曲的管道顶部皆装配了直径为6米的夹层玻璃,为中庭带来自然光照。玻璃中含有的一种特殊原料提取自已故非洲艺术家El Loko的作品,这种原料可以缓和日照带来的热度,为屋顶雕塑花园提供了安全的、可供行走的表面。

Each of the carved tubes was capped with a 6 metre diameter panel of laminated glass that brings daylight into the atrium. The glass carries a frit specially commissioned from the late African artist, El Loko, based on his Cosmic Alphabet works. As well as mitigating heat from daylight, the frits create a safe, walkable surface for the sculpture garden. 

 

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屋顶雕塑花园 ©Photography by Antonia Steyn

余下的内部管道则被拆除,为80个画廊提供了6000平方米的展示空间。位于地下的隧道则被用于一些需要在特殊场地进行的艺术创作。

The remaining inteal tubes were removed to make space for 80 gallery spaces providing 6,000sqm of exhibition space. Underground tunnels have also been adapted for artists to create site-specific works. 

 

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展览空间 © Photography by Antonia Steyn

另一方面,塔楼部分不适合用作展览空间。设计团队决定重构其结构,创造出一座明亮灯塔般的效果。以威尼斯灯饰凸出的图案为参考,博物馆的玻璃也做成了类似的效果。玻璃的切割面制造出精致的凸面形状,结构玻璃和60毫米x15米的钢条共同增强了框架的稳定性,形成一个透明的壳体。玻璃窗如万花筒般变换的图案和色彩创造出不规则的闪耀图形,使建筑在远处便显得熠熠生辉,夜间更成为一盏点亮码头与城市的明灯。

The proportions of the tower portion of the silo complex made it unsuitable for exhibition space. The design team reconceived this structure as an illuminated beacon. Inspired by the bulging glazed texture of a Venetian lamp, we developed a method for the new glazing that would give a similar convex effect. The solution was to use facets of glass, organised to create a subtle convex shape. Built with structural glass, the composition strengthens the frames of 60mm x 15mm steel bars to make a transparent shell.Forming a kaleidoscope of changing textures and colours the glazing creates irregular, sparkling pattes and provides far-reaching views. By night, the building acts as a lante for the harbour and the city beyond.

 

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窗户设计轴测图 ©Heatherwick Studio
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博物馆夜景 ©Photography by Iwan Baan

博物馆已于2017年9月22日在V&A码头正式向公众开放,成为世界上最大的致力于非洲及其侨民的当代艺术的博物馆。它地处非洲游客最多,同时也是文化及历史枢纽的开普敦,在一个天然而古老的活港口边缘,以标志性的桌山为背景,凭借海洋、山峰、城市碗(city bowl)和海滨的美景,每天将吸引多达10万名游客来访。

 

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首层与一层平面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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二层与三层平面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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四层与五层平面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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六层雕塑花园平面与博物馆平面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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北立面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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南立面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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东立面 ©Heatherwick Studio
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西立面 ©Heatherwick Studio

 

项目信息

Project Name

Zeitz MOCAA (Museum of Contemporary Art Africa)

Client

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront Holdings (Pty) Ltd

Location

Cape Town, South Africa

Completion date

September 2017

Area/size

Total area: 102,000 square feet

Exhibition space: 65,000 square feet

Designed by Heatherwick Studio

Design Director

Thomas Heatherwick

Group Leader

Mat Cash

Project Leader

Stepan Martinovsky

Team

Simona Auteri, Ruggero Bruno Chialastri, Yao Jen Chuang, Francis Field, Sarah Gill, Xuanzhi Huang, Changyeob Lee, Julian Liang, Débora Mateo, Stefan Ritter, Luke Snow, Ondrej Tichý, Meera Yadave

Making Team

Lucie Beauvert, Einar Blixhavn, Erich Breuer, Alex Flood, Hayley Henry, Hannah Parker, Luke Plumbley, Matthew Pratt

Delivery Architects

Van der Merwe Miszewski Architects, Rick Brown Associates, Jacobs Parker

Project Manager

Mace

Structural Engineer

Arup / Sutherland

M&E / Sustainabililty Engineer

Arup / Solution Station

Developer

V&A Waterfront Holdings (Pty) Ltd

Contractor

WBHO

Heritage Consultant

Nicolas Baumann 

 


 

版权声明:本文由Heatherwick Studio授权有方空间发表,欢迎转发,禁止转载。

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