建筑设计团队 中国建筑西北设计研究院有限公司 屈培青工作室
"It is our vision to create a future-oriented, naturally-grown, and three-dimensional campus where students are no longer constrained by the dense and deprived spaces of the city. Being in the campus is like travelling through a floating urban rainforest, surrounded by the sound of knowledge-seeking conversations. Climbing up the steps, passing through the horizontal corridors to the sky-platforms, as well as studying in the soothing open-space, under the sky and within the field, will, as we hope, become the most shining youthful moments in students’ memories."
The interconnected nature of buildings’ design, construction and application is the key of improving building quality. In the current era, where China's urban development is approaching into a new period of refinement, the implement of regulations in the front-line practice has become the main challenge for design teams.
Xi'an Gaoxin No.1 High School was founded in 1995. It was approved as one of the first batch of model high schools in Shaanxi Province in 2009. The school adheres to the motto of "innovating for the time, making the best use of talents”. In the past 27 years since the establishment, thousands of students have stepped into the door of the world's most famous schools, creating one after another brilliant achievements. Excelling itself from the others, it has been acknowledged and regarded as a school that students aspire to enroll in and parents prefer with. It is a beautiful "business card" of Xi'an High-tech Zone, most importantly, a core competitiveness of the sustainable development within the High-tech Zone.
This project is located in the heart of Xi'an Gaoxin District, with a site area of 45.6 acres, bordering Tangyan Road to the East and Keji No.3. Road to the South. The current site consists of three teaching buildings and one dormitory building. As the urban core area is developing rapidly and the demand of school’s operational condition is increasing, in the context of the new National College Entrance Examination Reform, many schools are facing challenges such as the lack of sufficient spaces, traffic congestion and as such. As the matter of fact, the original campus is in an urgent need of renewal and reconstruction.
With the regard to two dimensions from the city and education, the project takes the conceptual goal of ‘stepping up the book mountain and green island ’, as well as the two constructional principles of ‘shared campus space’ and ‘three-dimensionality’. On such basis, the following strategies are formed under the collaboration between the design team, the school management committee, government departments and construction units.
1. Expanding the scale, congregating the layout, and locating on the overall coordination of the urban area
2. Sharing between the school and communities, functioning in three-dimension, and solving the problem of internal and external problems of the campus.
3. Simplifying into the modern term, innovating for the time, and creating the new cityscape and images.
The project started in August 2021 and was officially delivered at the end of August 2023 after a 2-year design and construction period. The project’s name (Xi’an Gaoxin No.1 High School (High School) Expansion and Social Shared Car Park Construction Project) fully reflects the different meanings in the pre-planning phrase.
It has a total construction area of 78,549.31 square metres, which includes a ground construction area of 49,886.68 square metres (including 48,831.17 square meters of capacity), and an underground construction area of 28,662.63 square metres. The design retains one original teaching building, leaving the rest to be renewed and rebuilt.
New buildings consist of one comprehensive teaching building (including dormitories), a lifted playground (including a gymnasium and a lecture hall), a sunken courtyard, an underground parking area and a long outdoor corridor. The design team has applied concepts and controlling-measures, from the city, campus, form, function and cost, during the whole construction process to ensure the integrity of the project.
▲ 设计介绍视频 ©中建西北院 屈培青工作室
In order to maximise the use of the original buildings and retain the memory of the campus, the design team has retained one original teaching building in the north-west corner of the campus. The original 200-metres-playground is expanded to a standard size of 300-metres-playground in the remaining site.
Considering the sunlight condition and the condition of standardised setbacks, the new school buildings are designed in a U-shape layout on the south side of the site. The general planning presents the characteristics of ‘West Main South Auxiliary, West Static East Dynamic, West Low Middle High’. The main entrance is set on the west side of the site. The three courtyards are surrounded by the new U-shaped buildings and others. It creates a small plot of land than the original split space, interlinked to each other to optimise the outdoor experience.
The project’s traffic is organised on the planning layout and the project positioning, which can be divided into internal traffic for the campus and external traffic for the public. The previous reflects the main characteristics of a three-dimensional campus. The three main buildings of the campus are connected with an outdoor corridor on the west side, forming a cross-shaped and three-dimensional traffic space.
The traffic for public starts from two main points. One is the southeastern corner of the lifted playground. It allows the public to the enter the shared areas of the campus, which include the underground parking area, indoor gymnasium and the 300-metre playground. It can provide public facilities of sports and parking. The other entrance locates on the west side of the sunken courtyard, which is directly connected to the underground car park, allowing parents to drop off the students in the waiting area.
The shapes of the project are considered under the ‘Gaoxin Business Card’ effect and the two main elements of development-positions of the Gaoxin District.The design apply a simple but powerful language to interpret its cultural natures, with the colour of grey and white as the main-tone, as well as the colour of yellow and light blue as the secondary colour on both facade and the playground. Pure geometrical blocks are adopted to. The new comprehensive teaching building ascends upwards from the Tangyan Road, in which it reflects the respect towards the urban interface. The design shows an educational concept of ‘diversified, open and innovative’.
The grey and white facade mainly adopts the division model of through-layer and through-height. In order to ensure a good quality, single-layer and through-height honeycomb aluminium panels are applied on the outer contour areas. The upper and lower edges of the window openings on the north and south main walls of the comprehensive teaching building are made of aluminium straight line. Moreover, as the experimental units of the comprehensive building are located on the main road, multiple layers of through-height perforated metal louvers are applied on the facade to reduce the noise and shield from the sun. In general, the design is able to achieve the goal of a simple and modern style without losing innovation, as well as the results of a good performance in noise reduction and sun-shading.
The completed Gaoxin No.1 Middle School has the scale of 36 classes. The internal control of the campus is based on the planning and construction of a closer fit in terms of the distribution of functions and the organisation of the management flow. It also incorporates educational concepts to form a series of differentiated spaces within the same building type.The internal functions of the campus are divided into seven sections: the main teaching area, the club activities area, the administrative area, the dormitory area, the supporting area, the sports and art area and the equipment area.
The main teaching area is distributed on the 2nd-5th floors of the reserved teaching building, the 3rd-5th floors of the experimental building and the 2nd-5th floors of the comprehensive teaching building. It includes 56 standard classrooms and 15 experimental classrooms, which can fully meet the demands of the new College Entrance Examination Requirements of the classroom system. The club activity area is on the 7th-10th floors of the comprehensive teaching building for the clubs of dance, music, ceramics, art and so on.
The administrative area is laid out on the 1st floor of the reserved teaching building and on the 6th floor of the new comprehensive building, which provides a direct reception for outsiders and offers a panoramic view of the campus. The dormitory area is located on the 4th to 13th floors, of which the 4th to 12th floors are student dormitories with a management room on each floor, and the 13th floor is a temporary teacher dormitory for on-duty teachers and the training teachers from other schools.
The living facilities include a dining room, a kitchen and a convenience store. The restaurant is located on the 2nd floor of the comprehensive teaching building and on the 1st floor of sunken courtyard on the east side, which can hold 2,000 people at the same time. The kitchen is located on the 1st floor of the comprehensive teaching building, near the south side of the secondary entrance, which is convenient for loading and unloading of good. It is connected with the restaurant through a special dining ladder.
The sport and art area takes the lifted playground as the main body of space, including a 300-metre outdoor playground, three outdoor basketball courts, an indoor gymnasium (for basketball, table tennis, fitness and other functions), and a 700-person lecture hall. The equipment area is mainly located in the southeast and northeast areas of the first basement level, which is designed with the garage ramp. The design allows a better management and an appropriate distance away from the teaching area.
It is the common goal of all parties involved in the project to make full and effective use of funds to realise the principle of "not spending a penny more, not spending a penny recklessly". All parties in the project adopted the measures(of dynamic real-time simulation of costs, design control standards, construction of instant feedback quality), supported with the polices from relevant departments of the Gaoxin Management Committee and the innovative educational concept from the school party. At the beginning, the design team has estimated and reviewed the construction funds from aspects of the site preparation, main body, facade, interior, landscape, earth excavation and other subsections, which laid a solid proof for the actual construction.
During a time-critical construction project, multiple parties are in constant communication to further refine and revise the construction costs. To form a complete version of the dynamic costs, more than 20 revisions and calculations were made. Finally by the time of its delivery, the dynamic cost target principle was completed with the efficient co-operation of all parties involved. The final quality of the project was highly recognised by the government, school authorities, acceptance experts, students, parents, and the public. The whole process of design control of this project has also accumulated rich and effective practical experience for the design team.
The Xi'an Gaoxin No.1 High School (High School) Expansion and Social Shared Car Park Construction Project has now been delivered. This project is an in-depth exploration of school construction in a high-density urban area. The design team aimed to implement the concepts of ‘three-dimensionality’ and ‘school-society integration’, not only through a single act of construction, but also through its operation and maintenance. Therefore, the design team has been continuing to actively follow up on the practical application of the project while completing their regular duties. Guided by the theory of post-assessment, the design team formulated a post-assessment follow-up plan of ‘short-term improvement and correction, medium-term optimisation of the building's use, and long-term data collection’. On the one hand, it summarises the experience of design, and on the other hand, it helps to make the building have a better legacy and significance on the city.