丹麦建筑工作室Cobe宣布哥本哈根歌剧院公园（the Opera Park）竣工。哥本哈根内港区域正在逐渐变得越来越稠密和混合用途，这造就了一个热闹非凡的首都。然而，随着密度和活动的增加，居民和游客越来越多，绿色休闲空间却越来越少。歌剧院公园是哥本哈根港口的一个公共公园，其设计目的是在密集的市中心为人们提供休闲、放松和沉思的场所。公园内的树木、灌木丛、植物和花卉种类繁多，堪称一片绿肺。
Danish architecture studio Cobe announces the completion of The Opera Park in Copenhagen. The mixed-use densification of Copenhagen's inner harbor has resulted in a lively and buzzing capital city. However, as increasing density and activity result in more residents and more visitors, green recreational spaces have become more and more scarce. The Opera Park is a public park on the Copenhagen harbor front designed for recreation, relaxation and contemplation in the middle of the dense city center. A green lung offering a diverse variation of trees, bushes, plants and flowers.
In 2019, following a design competition, The A.P. Møller Foundation appointed the Danish architecture studio Cobe to design a new park at a former industrial island in Copenhagen's inner harbor.
Located next to The Royal Danish Opera, the site had been a modest green lawn since the completion of the Opera nearly 20 years ago. Utterly transformed today, the island which was otherwise prime for the development of new housing, is now home to a diverse and natural landscape. Named The Opera Park, this new public harbor-front park creates a green counterpoint to the otherwise densely built inner harbor of Copenhagen.
Organized with inspiration from the European capital's historical gardens with winding paths and carefully crafted viewpoints, The Opera Park consists of six gardens from various parts of the world, a café and greenhouse, underground parking garage for up to 300 cars as well as a covered pedestrian bridge connecting the park with the neighboring Royal Danish Opera.
Dan Stubbergaard, Founder of Cobe and Professor at Harvard University, explains: “The Opera Park is a place where nature comes first amidst Copenhagen's bustling urban development. With its six gardens, winding paths and carefully crafted viewpoints, the project seizes elements of Copenhagen's historical, romantic gardens to tackle today's challenges such as decline in biodiversity and water management. Designed for recreation, relaxation and contemplation, the park provides the city with a much-needed green oasis. As you stroll through the park, you get the feeling of having left the city and being immersed in nature, almost forgetting you are in the middle of the dense city center.”
With the size of three soccer fields, the park is green oasis in the city center, consisting of six gardens from various parts of the world: the North American Forest, the Danish Oak Forest, the Nordic Forest, the Oriental Garden, the English Garden, and the Subtropical Garden housed within the greenhouse.
The diverse gardens hold surprises such as a fountain, a water lily pond, and a reflecting pool where drops of water from a mast gently strike the water's surface in a soothing rhythm. Meandering paths and organically shaped flowerbeds knit together the park's elements.
Like an opera stage, the park is a composed landscape with a foreground, a middle ground and a background. The plants and trees are placed, so their natural heights create the scenic setting facing the harbor.
Designed to be an inviting, year-round public attraction, the park features no less than 628 trees, 80,000 herbaceous perennials and bushes and 40,000 bulb plants from all around the world. In total, 223 unique exotic and local species provide a vibrant and ever-changing backdrop for visitors.
The vegetation's appearance, scent, color, and density vary with the seasons. Spring blooms in a rich color palette, summer brings various shades of green, autumn showcases red and yellow tones, and winter is dominated by evergreen pine trees and frozen ponds. The wide variety of plant species and diversity of sizes provides a rich environment for birds and insects to find food and shelter.
The park features a central greenhouse with a café, giving access to car parking underneath the park's surface. The greenhouse and café will ensure that The Opera Park remains a vibrant destination year-round, even during winter when many of Copenhagen's parks are desolate.
The greenhouse is designed as an organically shaped glass structure with a hovering roof, intended to surprise and delight visitors as they navigate the lush landscape. Inside, the greenhouse terraces down to the parking levels, which accommodate up to 300 cars, while its subtropic biotope also descends to vertically weave together the park with the underground levels.
The park also features a covered connection to the adjacent Royal Danish Opera via a covered walkway atop a landscaped bridge, allowing a weather protected link between the parking facility and the Opera. Echoing the architecture of the greenhouse, the walkway's curved glass and a floating roof evokes the landscape design in its meandering path - fully integrating landscape and architecture into one.
Rainwater is considered a valuable resource for the park, channeled from the roof of the Royal Danish Opera into underground water reservoirs used for greenhouse irrigation. Excess rainwater is collected in rain beds for infiltration and evaporation. The green roofs of the landscaped bridge and greenhouse capture and delay the release rainwater to the site while also serving as a food source for the park's fauna.
The abundance of trees and plantings shield against strong winds coming from the harbor and the sea, reducing turbulence and increasing the level of comfort for park users. Furthermore, the elevated terrain safeguards the island from flooding during heavy rainfall and significant rises in the harbor water level.
The Opera Park opened to the public on September 27, 2023 and can be accessed for free. The park is open daily from 7:00 AM to 11:00 PM all year round and was donated by the A.P. Møller Foundation as a public recreational space in Copenhagen.
Location: Copenhagen, Denmark
Client: The Opera Park Foundation. Donation by The A.P. Moller Foundation
Program: Public park including greenhouse with café, a covered pedestrian bridge, and underground parking facility for up to 300 cars
Size: 21,500 m²
Year: First prize in competition 2019, completed 2023
Collaborators: Vita, Via Trafik, DBI and Lüchninger Meyer Hermansen, Hansson og Knudsen, Bauer, Redtz Glas og Façade, HSM Industri, GK Danmark, Bravida Danmark, Høyrup & Clemmesen, KONE, Phønix Tag, Jakon, Areo, Terrazzo.dk, Raadvad Maleren, Snedkerierne, OKNygaard, Palmproject Europe, Scanview Systems, Zurface, Retail Reflexions, Vector Foiltech
Team: Alberte Danvig, Alena Veselova, Alexander Ejsing, Andreas Kloster, Ariel Norback Wallner, Andreas Benn, Bastian Weinreich Ben Goss, Bertram Stubbergaard Mørk, Caroline Krogh Andersen, Carsten Udbye, Casper Borg, Christian Kuczynski, Christian Sander, Claes Nilsson, Clement Bue Maali, Connor Forecast, Dan Stubbergaard, Daniel Braat Carlsen, Emanuele Biscaro, Frederik Lykkeberg Larsen, Iselin Bjørnevik, Jacob Lantow, Julian Bokej, Kasper Bak Mikkelsen, Katarzyna Starczewska, Lauren Catterson, Liv Moodie, Mads Herskind Møller, Maiken Høj, Maj Wiwe, Margarita Nutfulina, Marlena Lipnicka, Matilda Andersson, Max Neumeister, Mikkel Reedtz Morris, Morten Engel, Nikola Antonijevic, Rasmus Lassen, Roberto Barbosa, Rosa Bui, Sanna Funck, Stefan Mylleager, Stine Bærentzen, Thea Gasseholm, Thomas Krarup, Thomas Hobbs, Yuhui Yang
Photographer: Francisco Tirado