一方面，我们试图创造一种适用于商业开发的新型山地居住模式，以兼顾开发商利益与客户居住体验；另一方面，我们对环境保护和建造技术也进行了新的探索。弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 (Frank Lloyd Wright）曾说，“房子不应该被建造在山上，而应该成为山的一部分。”而吊脚楼的形式，让每一栋建筑都成为一棵“树”，长在山坡上。
On the one hand, we are trying to create a new mountain housing model suitable for commercial development, so as to balance the interests of developers and the residential experience of customers. On the other hand, we have made new explorations on environmental protection and construction technology. Frank Lloyd Wright once said, "Houses should not be built on mountains, but should be part of mountains." In the form of stilted buildings, each building becomes a tree, growing on the hillside.
When it comes to "mountain residence", people usually associate it with landscape cities and landscape paintings. This just points to the idealized and conceptualized reality of Chinese contemporary architectural design, which is obviously not effective for large-scale land development today. China's real estate development has been in the mode of extensive development for a long time, and it is difficult to guarantee quantity and quality, let alone careful consideration of context, space or construction mode. This may be one of the reasons why residential architecture is rarely discussed in academic circles.
In order to solve the housing problem of hundreds of millions of people, we believe that "dwelling" has no original sin, and it will inevitably go through a long process from low level to high level, from standardization to individuality, from quantity to quality. As China enters the era of stock economy, traditional design and construction methods can no longer meet the requirements of the government and owners, which in turn prompts the team to constantly optimize the design strategy. J.Lalli Project tries to provide an environmentally friendly answer based on technology and efficiency from the background of The Times.
The project is located in the summer resort of Moganshan Town, which has been popular for holidays since the Republic of China. Since the late Qing Dynasty, local buildings have shown their obsession with imported Shanghai villas, and now they gather web celebrity B & B to cater to the trend. We can't help thinking about what kind of house can stand the test of aesthetic change and time. Perhaps only the picturesque landscape can be preserved here, so it is our primary choice to protect the mountain to the maximum extent and let the architecture embrace the natural landscape.
The planned construction area of the project is 23,410 m2, which consists of an established range of 23 red lines of different sizes that are interconnected. The red line of land use is disordered and correlated with mountain and contour lines, and the mountain is steep with a slope between 22° and 30°. The high volume and steep site conditions present great design challenges. On one hand, the building should conform to the red line of the site, presenting a sense of order in harmony with the forest, neither too out of step nor too rigid; On the other hand, it is necessary to manage the elevation relationship, moving line and landscape view of each household according to local conditions, and deal with the privacy between households to avoid the disturbance of vision, etc., which makes J.Lalli project have the design interface and design density beyond expectations.
For mountain architecture, the relationship between "artificial" and "natural" is always the contradiction. From the Angle of intensive land use, the intensity of development should not be too small. From the Angle of protecting the ecological environment, the intensity of building intervention should not be too large. The project has set the strategy of "high reservation" and "low intervention" since the beginning of design. Taking landscape as the foundation has become the utmost purpose of Party A and the design team.
Therefore, we re-divided 23 blocks into four groups with four drop-off squares as the core, thus completing the first definition of site order. This approach solves the density and tension caused by the extremely high building density and the disorder of the red line; At the same time, we deduce nine basic modules according to the common divisor of the red line size, and combine them to form independent blocks. The dense building community echoes the main peak of Moganshan in the southwest, connecting a visual corridor as a whole. The main view of the landscape is also opened up in each block. At the same time, due to the mountain, the buildings in the group are scattered among each other, and each house has its own unique daily landscape.
Based on the overall layout, motor vehicles are isolated at the foot of the flat mountain, and residents are connected to each cluster from battery cars, and then walk into the house through the walkway. From the cluster to the square, then to the walking steps, and finally from the gray space of the courtyard to the interior, the rearrangement of the space brings the necessary sense of ceremony to the transition space between the public area and the private domain, and becomes a neighborhood communication space free from noise. At the same time, each cluster creates a strong privacy, rendering the deep artistic conception of "hidden in the mountains, visible but unreachable". The platform and walkway between the series of clusters echo the main landscape of the reservoir, creating a romantic scene of "walking by the reservoir and meeting among the mountains".
We do not deliberately imitate the prevailing European style, or the dwellings in the South of the Yangtze River described by Guanzhong Wu, but respect the land by conforming to the natural base. Therefore, the scheme uses stilted buildings and glass curtain walls to create a light and relaxed architectural style, integrating the building into the forest and inviting the forest into the building. The large cantilevered structure minimizes falling to the ground, protecting the landscape and giving the building a floating feel. Overhanging, the native trees are green; above the cantilever, the flat surface brings a unified order to the community.
In terms of external space construction, the space sequence is carefully organized, and the indoor space, grey space and private space add to the interest of the project. We hope that every time we return home is a comfort to the soul. We have created a unique household experience according to the characteristics of the mountain. The plank road twists and turns, guiding the sight, footsteps and mood. The irregular status of the site provides each family with a unique homecoming memory. The natural and artificial seem to be opposite; the building uses the wide terrace and the shading system to form the gray space with rich layers of eaves and verandas, so that the subject and object blend into one.
Building and landscape thus form a good interactive relationship: In the vertical direction, the ground floor is closely surrounded by green plants, and the middle floor penetrates the dense tree canopy. The roof terrace connects the forest, reservoir and distant mountain, which is thousands of miles away.
In the horizontal direction, the plane unfolds like “一”, and the scene outside the window moves step by step, forming a continuous and diverse view. The “一” plane is only recessed into the balcony on the second floor, forming a more stable and secret scene than open platform, and reaching a similar level of granularity with forest and trees in shape. It is precisely because of the large amount of space between the building and nature, and between the inside and outside of the building, that the immersive occupants feel a strong emotional release at such a density and volume.
In terms of interior details, in order to maximize the landscape, the building adopts a shape ratio of large area, wide area and small depth, and uses the corner to create a 1.5x view of the landscape. The action of opening the door and window can realize the integration of indoor and outdoor space. The French window at the corner strengthens this experience, and the mountain wind comes along with the beautiful scenery. In order to create a flow space, the undefined space in the stairwell and the double-height space in the stairwell are connected with the sunken terrace on the second floor. The space is bent several degrees in the section, and the horizontal and vertical bi-directional expansion space brings more freedom for use.
We also use skylights to introduce natural light, large area of French Windows with louvers shading and delicate layout, while ensuring privacy to create a rich indoor light environment and unique bathroom experience. There are no Windows or half-height transverse Windows on the side of the adjacent walkway to ensure the privacy of the indoor space.
With respect to nature as the priority, the steel structure with the least sense of environmental pressure is selected as the main structure. Meanwhile, the stone and alloy materials with good weather resistance and low maintenance rate are selected for the maintenance structure. Finally, the dark aluminum alloy lines outline the static and beautiful outline of the building. In the facade design, a large number of far-reaching peripherals are used, with only a small number of pure glass blocks. The peripherals form a soft transition between the original simple and tough building volume and the mountain forest, weakening its pressure on the environment, while the glass boxes mark the location characteristics and spatial memory of the cluster. The carefully selected dark gray burned limestone, dark aluminum alloy panels and wooden grille ceiling create a simple and harmonious overall tone between the building and the forest.
Although the steep mountain brings many disadvantages to the construction interface and material transportation, we still use technology to solve the problems in the construction implementation process, so as to avoid the excavation disturbance to the environment as much as possible. In order to avoid large machinery entering and destroying the environment, artificial digging piles are adopted in the pile foundation of the project. In order to abandon the influence of concrete formwork casting on the site, steel structure is completely adopted in the construction, so that the structure and curtain wall can be installed on the site with prefabricated components. At the same time, we adopt the steel truss floor bearing plate to realize the construction without formwork on site.
To ensure the integrity of the interior space, we first control the size of the beam-column section in order that it is the same width as the block after the fire retardant coating is finished, the phenomenon of convex beam and convex column will not appear in the room, and it is also convenient to convert the electric tube from the floor to the wall. By optimizing the steel joints, the beam-column joints can be hidden within the blocks. The non-clapboard joint in the column can realize the filling of self-compacting concrete inside the column, which can reduce the thickness of the fireproof coating outside the thin steel column, prevent the cold bridge effect, avoid the trill and sound transmission of empty steel pipe, and create a better indoor environment.
Urban and rural areas are not opposites, but now, with urbanization and rural revitalization, they are having an unprecedented dialogue. The highly dense living places are gradually overflowing, and the homogenized texture makes people have more imagination about the secluded life in the mountains. Only by developing its characteristics based on the site and letting the land tell the story of life, can we create a place in the landscape that fits the current life scene and make the design give full play to its maximum value.