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枣园驿站:聚散之间 / 原本营造

枣园驿站:聚散之间 / 原本营造
编辑:魏璇 | 2019.10.23 09:16
鸟瞰图 摄影:林艺苹

设计单位  原本营造

项目地点  陕西省佳县

建筑面积  476平方米

建成时间  2019年8月


 

随着近代黄河水运交通的没落,陕北沿黄崖壁间曾经辉煌的窑洞村落沦为偏远之境。而近年沿黄公路的建设为这些古老的村落带来了转机。沿路建设“驿站”可以为道路交通提供便利,也使其成为老村对外交流的“触角”以及城乡生活的“聚集地”。设计师在陕西省佳县设计了融入自然、激活城乡的多元功能的枣园驿站。

With the decline of Yellow river transportation in modern times, the glorious cave dwelling village along the precipice in Northern Shaanxi has become a remote place. In recent years, the construction of the highway along the Yellow River has ushered in new opportunities for these ancient villages. The design of the "post station" along the road not only facilitates road traffic, but also becomes the "antenna" of the old villages and the "gathering place" of urban and rural life. The designer designed the JUJUBE ORCHARD STATION in Beijing, which is a multi-functional city that integrates nature and activates urban and rural areas.

 

鸟瞰图  摄影:林艺苹

 

放大的驿站

 

从政府层面看,沿路“驿站”的建设初衷是为沿黄公路村落的交通旅游服务配套,包括停车场、店铺、公共卫生间三种基本功能。同时,由于老村保护区内山地窑院用地紧张,泥河沟村民们一直希望在村里的枣林建个大戏台广场以及容纳两百人的红白理事馆,而且需要不干扰村内的生活。

From the point of government, the construction of the "post station" along the road is intended to provide a complete set of traffic and tourism services for the villages along the Yellow Road, including three basic functions: parking, shop and public toilet. However, the old village reserve are short of land, The villagers of Nihegou have been hoping to build a grand stage square and a Wedding and Funeral Banquet Hall with 200 people in the jujube forests, so as not to interfere with the life of the village.

 

面对这些需求,设计师将驿站的功能放大到餐饮、茶室、戏台广场、红白喜事甚至临时的红枣市集等。它成为偏远的泥河沟村对外交流的“触角”,同时也是乡村公共生活的集聚场所。因为这里拥有全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS)“佳县古枣园”,设计师的首要目标是将建筑自然地置入村口参差的枣林间。

In the face of the differences between urban and rural areas, with the opportunity of "post station" construction, the service spaces with complementary functions are concentrated outside the old villages. The functions are enlarged to restaurants, teahouses, stage squares, banquet hall, and even temporary jujube Market. It becomes the remote tentacles of the Nihegou village, and also a gathering place for rural public life. With the world's important agricultural and cultural heritage (GIAHS): "Jiaxian ancient jujube garden", The designer's primary goal is to place the building naturally in the jujube forest where the village entrance is uneven.

 

枣园驿站轴测图   ©原本营造

 

消散的建筑

 

村口临近沿黄公路的一侧只有两山夹壁间的一片枣林地,流经村内的车会河环绕汇入黄河。从公路到枣林河道边缘有近三米阶梯状落差,而枣林河道边新修的防洪堤又有四米高差,以防每年夏秋之际的山洪暴发。基地里的枣树林是村里的主要经济作物。而枣林边缘的乔木也是村落生物多样性的重要保障。因此,设计师因地制宜地利用地形高差与林木间距,将建筑空间打散在林中。

On the side of the road along the Yellow Road, there is only one jujube woodland near the new road. From the highway to the edge of River, there is a step-like drop of nearly three meters, while the newly built flood control dike along River has a height difference of four meters, in order to prevent the mountain flood outbreak in summer and autumn every year. The uneven jujube forest in the base is the main economic crop in the village. Other trees on the edge of jujube forest are also important guarantees of village biodiversity. In this regard, it is the preferred strategy to disperse the building space in the forest by taking advantage of the topographic elevation difference and the spacing between trees according to local conditions.

 

建设前鸟瞰  ©原本营造
建设后鸟瞰  摄影:杨秉鑫

 

驿站广场的规划设计从相地立基开始。设计师避开南侧村入口枣林密集区及观音庙保护区域,保持村口枣林自然进入的氛围,将驿站建筑群主体置于枣林北侧林木稀疏处,狮山崖壁下。同时,利用路、林、河堤间高差广狭,定其间进、因树就屋,随曲合方,将建筑大部分分散在枣林间,局部因为功能而聚合。这样的设计既可以保护村口的枣林原貌又能得一方自在天地。

The planning and design of the station starts from the measure land. To avoid the southern jujube densely populated area and the Guanyin Temple conservation area, to maintain the natural atmosphere of the jujube forest in the village, the main building of the station should be placed on the sparse side of the north jujube forest, and next to the Shishan cliff. The height difference between roads, forests and river embankments is wide and narrow, so that the buildings can enter and be built by trees. The buildings can be reduced to basic space units along the curve, so as to weaken the volume and disperse it among jujube forests. Building natural contemporary settlements among the forests not only preserves the origin of the village entrance, but also obtains another small world.

 

泥河沟总平面图 ©原本营造
一层平面图  ©原本营造
分析图  ©原本营造
沿路驿站  ©原本营造
驿站店铺及室内,深褐色柳编屋顶下,横向长窗框景枣林,增强购物体验  ©原本营造
驿站通廊  摄影:杨秉鑫
店铺之间的“缝隙”,通向林下卫生间,诱入枣林  ©原本营造

 

乡野园林

 

在中国园林里,建筑是典型的单元类型化,主要结构与构造方式遵循基本形制,而其与路径、场所与情境的关系营造远胜于建筑本身。在乡村的场所营造中,设计师应该中国园林巧妙的场所处理方式,而且简约有效地融合本地技术、考虑较低造价的现实需求。为此,建筑以本地木石为主料,将轻钢框架与当地特色的石墙、柳编工艺相结合,嵌于枣林与防洪石堤之间。设计师压低墙体高度,上留高窗以便采光通风,同时可以纳入树林景观。

How to borrow the ingenious way of dealing with Chinese gardens in the construction of rural venues, and effectively integrate the actual demand of local technology and lower cost? For this reason, light steel frame and local characteristics of stone wall and willow weaving technology are selected to reduce the wall height, leave high windows, lighting and ventilation, and can be incorporated into the forest landscape. Their unitary volume is not only scattered among the forests, but also partially aggregated due to their behavioral functions, which has become a new experience mode of rural garden space in jujube orchard.

 

活动中心  摄影:林艺苹
夹缝入口  摄影:林艺苹

“驿站店铺石基高筑,前抵沿黄路;大小两间,中开虚缝,后连石砌坡道,漫步入林间聚落,景物随机,高下相成,抵至林下方间石厕,树影婆娑,正是五谷轮回之所。若有兴致,亦可沿林间石道折入驿站内院小憩。高台茶室、观景餐厅、大灶厨房大小数间,离合相间、随势高低、曲折为院。院中石阶剧场、石堤戏台自成一体,槐荫当庭、崖壁为屏,虚实相生。借黄河崖壁的壮阔背景及滨水河道的自然风光,闲散于天地间,再造一处‘北方山水聚落’。”

"The station shop is high in stone foundation, and the former is along the Huang Road; the two are large and small, with a hollow seam in the middle, followed by a stone ramp, strolling into the forest, and the scenery is random and high, forming a stone under the forest. The toilet, the tree shadow, is the place where the grain reincarnation. If you are interested, you can also fold into the inner courtyard of the station along the forest stone road. The height of the tea room, the viewing restaurant, the large kitchen, the size of the kitchen, the distance, the trend, The twists and turns are the courtyard. The stone-level theater in the courtyard and the stone embankment are self-contained. The shade of the court and the cliff are screens, which are both real and false. By the magnificent background of the Yellow River cliff and the natural scenery of the waterfront, it is idle between the heavens and the earth. A 'Northern landscape settlement'."

 

村内河道  摄影:林艺苹
沿堤入口  摄影:林艺苹

石阶庭院  摄影:林艺苹

庭院戏台 摄影:林艺苹

 

聚散之间

 

驿站戏台广场在原本枣林凹地的基础上转化为阶梯场地,将建筑单体空间聚拢,迎合金狮山围而成院。所有房间均向内院戏台敞开,因功能不同形成差异的内外空间氛围:主厅连接厨房,南开天窗,光线明亮;抬高的茶室正对戏台广场,林木围绕,最为幽暗;管理用房的小窗保证了办公空间的舒适度和便利性。

The square was transformed into a staircase base on the original jujube forest concave land, and the building monomer space was gathered to cater for the steep Golden Lion Mountain. All rooms are open to the inner theatre stage, but because of different functions, there are different space atmosphere. The main hall connects the kitchen with a South skylight and bright light; the elevated tea room is surrounded by trees, facing the stage square, with the darkest space; even the small windows of the management room ensure the comfort and convenience of the office space.

 

阶梯场地  摄影:陈瑜​
阶梯场地  ©原本营造

室内—主厅  ©原本营造
室内—次厅 ©原本营造
管理用房  摄影:唐勇

茶室 摄影:林艺苹

 

这种差异的单元空间氛围,类似南宋牧溪的《六柿图》。虚实不同的六颗柿子,被搁置在一块无形无边界的平面上,看似随意散落实又似精心聚合。它们之间的层叠或缝隙差异带来诸多微妙的想象。

Similar to the Six Persimmons painting of Muxi in Southern Song Dynasty, the six persimmons with different virtual and real are placed on an invisible and boundless plane, seemingly scattered and implemented at random, and seemingly gathered meticulously. The overlapping or gap differences between them bring many subtle imaginations.

 

《六柿图》  ©南宋 牧溪

相对空间的聚散,时间和行为上的聚散是乡村更真实的日常。乡村大多数日子是宁静而重复的日常,驿站广场只在村子重要的时刻发挥作用。当节庆、喜事之际,乡亲们在驿站广场共聚一堂,崖壁为屏、聚首当歌。

Relative space gathering and dispersing, time and behavioral reincarnation may be a more real daily life in the countryside. Most of the days in the countryside are quiet and repetitive, and the square provide the leisure sitting and watching of the main road at the village entrance. When festivals or other events come, villagers gather in the Plaza. The huge cliff seems on screen, with the singing, inspiring their mood of worship. 

 

庭院戏台  摄影:杨秉鑫
活动中的戏台   ©原本营造
活动中的庭院   ©原本营造

面对大山大河,或喜或悲,这种聚集的仪式在漫长的日子里为数不多,但在古老的村落中更不可或缺。枣园驿站以聚落的空间散落林间,静静承载着古村落生活的聚与散。

In the face of mountains and rivers, or joy or sorrow, this gathering ceremony is rare in the long days, but even more indispensable in the ancient villages. The jujube orchard Post Station scatters among the forests in the settlement space, quietly carrying the gathering and scattering of the ancient village life.

 

鸟瞰图  ©原本营造

完整项目信息

项目名称:枣园驿站

项目地点:陕西佳县泥河沟村

建筑面积:476平方米

设计单位:原本营造

主持设计:唐勇

建筑设计:林艺苹、杨秉鑫、赵沛、王博

结构设计:罗敏杰

机电设计:姜海鹏、韩亚征

照明设计:丁志强

施工单位:西北秦龙建筑工程有限责任公司佳县分公司

现场负责:尚生雄

技术负责:张艳伟

设计时间:2017年5月至2017年8月

竣工时间:2019年8月

摄影师:林艺苹、杨秉鑫、陈瑜

 


 

版权声明:本文由原本营造授权发布,欢迎转发,禁止以有方编辑版本转载。

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