Herzog & de Meuron
设计团队 赫尔佐格 & 德梅隆项目团队
The former Central Police Station, the Central Magistracy and the Victoria Prison is a walled compound of heritage buildings at the commercial centre of Hong Kong Island. Established by the British after 1841 as the colony’s main police station, magistracy, and prison, the site is one of Hong Kong’s most important remaining historic monuments. Following its decommission in 2006, the entire compound was vacated, leaving a set of open grounds and a collection of unique buildings.
From an urban perspective, the compound is a rare "courtyard" in the middle of one of the densest cities in the world. What once stood on the hillside as a prominent symbol of law and order with commanding views to the harbour has now inversely become an urban oasis of openness and calm within a forest of commercial and residential high-rises. The compound is defined and structured by two large courtyards: the Parade Ground and the Prison Yard. Our goal is to preserve the openness and distinct character of both and to re-activate them for public use as a new type of urban found space. These spaces will define the site physically and programmatically as places of gathering, cultural exchange, leisure, and respite.
The Parade Ground is surrounded on each side by several of the site’s most historic buildings, resulting in a formal open space with generous room for public recreation, events, direct access to restaurant and retail attractions, as well as smaller-scale cultural and educational spaces. The Prison Yard will be subtly transformed from a rough and forbidding area to a new open public space dedicated to cultural programming.
Adding a new arts and cultural program is one of the key strategies to opening up and activating the former Prison Yard. Two new volumes that float tightly above the surrounding granite walls are conceived as distinctive but carefully inserted elements within the fabric of existing buildings. By cantilevering above the walls and keeping a minimum distance to the adjacent structures, the buildable floor area is maximized while staying within the zoning envelope and at the same time creating protective offsets from the surrounding historical buildings.
As an architectural expression, it also clearly distinguishes the new buildings from the site’ s historic buildings. Gathered mainly at the Lower Courtyard, the former police buildings sit proudly on either street level or on top of the granite walls, making their authority and presence in the city known. The prison buildings, on the other hand, are located behind the walls, and have historically been separated from public access and view for obvious reasons of safety and security. The new building volumes copy neither of the historical conditions but instead create a new relationship to the site context by hovering just above the wall.
By raising the volumes, new public and circulation spaces are created below, resulting in generous protected places for gathering and activity, and establishing a new East-West pedestrian connection from Arbuthnot Road to Old Bailey Street. At the same time, the buildings become new markers at the two ends of the compound, bringing attention to a formerly closed-off part of the city.
沿奥卑利街一侧的新建筑Old Bailey Wing，位于场地西南角，与适应性再利用的历史建筑F Hall联系紧密，二者的功能都与当代艺术相关。由于Old Bailey Wing悬挑于防护墙上方，得以留存空间设置入口庭院，此入口区域不受雨淋和日晒的影响，是F Hall和Old Bailey Wing的交通枢纽和门厅。多功能画廊F Hall将用于艺术展览或其他特殊活动，而岁月在原始建筑留下的痕迹都被保留了。与F Hall不同，相邻的Old Bailey Wing将拥有大型无柱展览空间，最大化其空间灵活性。屋顶的天窗将为顶部画廊空间提供自然采光。二楼是一家餐厅，设有户外露台，在这里可以俯瞰建筑群所根植的整个城市景观，它拥有着丰富的肌理与脉络。
The design of Old Bailey Wing, located at the southwest portion of the site, is developed in close relation to the adaptive reuse of the F Hall. New connections will be created between the two buildings. Together, they will house contemporary art functions. The courtyard entrance of the Old Bailey Wing is defined by the building’s volume hovering above the historic revetment wall. This entrance area is protected from rain and sun, and acts as the circulation hub and foyer to both the F Hall and Old Bailey Wing. The F Hall will be a versatile gallery space for art exhibition or other special events. Much of the original architecture with its traces from the buildings’ past use are kept and preserved.In contrast, the adjacent Old Bailey Wing will feature large column free exhibition spaces with maximum flexibility. Skylights in the roof will provide natural daylight into the top gallery space. The second floor is dedicated to a restaurant with an outdoor terrace overlooking the rich and textured roofscape of the entire compound embedded in the cityscape.
另一个新建筑Arbuthnot Wing是前中区警署遗址（the CPS site）东南角的新地标，是亚毕诺街新的临街建筑。该建筑同样“漂浮”在亚毕诺街的防护墙上方，创造了一个有顶的室外公共聚会、电影放映和表演空间，内部的大楼梯可以随意落座让游客轻松享受各类文娱活动。
Sitting as a new marker on the southeast corner of the CPS site is the new Arbuthnot Wing. The volume similarly hovers above the revetment wall along Arbuthnot Road, creating a covered public outdoor gathering, cinema and performance space with a large stair whose steps may be used for informal seating.
沿亚毕诺街的两侧是旧监狱建筑——D Hall和E Hall，为这个独特的户外场地构筑了沿街立面。室内高度被充分利用，产生了两个宽敞的空间：一个8米高的多功能厅，配以无障碍技术的网格天花板；一个机械厂房，里面有冷却塔和设备，服务于整个场地。
On either side of the Arbuthnot Wing are old prison buildings, D Hall and E Hall, forming interior elevations for this unique outdoor venue. The height restriction is also fully taken advantage of, resulting in two more generous program spaces above: an 8m height multipurpose space with an accessible technical grid ceiling, and a mechanical plant room that houses cooling towers and equipment serving the entire site.
两座新建筑Arbuthnot Wing与Old Bailey Wing均采用铝铸外墙模数系统，在尺度和比例方面，呼应了遗址的特色边界——防护墙现有的花岗岩砌块元素，从而建立了一定的文脉关系。材料采用100%再生铝，使建筑外观独特且具有质感。新建筑物成为历史砖石建筑群中的新介入物，解决了自身结构支撑的同时，还具备遮阳和在香港亚热带气候下防雨的功能。立面单元间的特殊孔隙、构筑的图案和风貌，是受其内部功能和环境影响的。铝铸材料单元具有独特的粗糙度和纹理，打破了规整单调的外立面形象，且有助于降低白天光照的反射率和眩光。到了晚上，建筑物发出的光将被外墙的模数单元部分屏蔽，在呈现其内部活动的生动状态时，还不会产生光污染。
Both new buildings are clad with a cast aluminium façade unit system that is referencing, in terms of scale and proportion, the existing granite block elements of the characteristic bordering revetment wall surrounding the entire site, thus establishing a certain contextual relationship. The use of 100% recycled aluminium as a material provides a distinctive architectural expression and materiality, setting the new buildings apart as new insertions amongst the collection of historical masonry blocks, and at the same time addresses issues such as structural support, sun shading, and rain protection in Hong Kong’s subtropical climate. The specific porosity, patterning, and expression of the façade unit is informed by the functional and environmental requirements of the uses within. The materiality of the cast aluminium units will have a distinctive roughness and texture breaking down the façade surface, which helps to reduce the reflectivity and glare during the daytime. At night, light emitted from the building will be partially screened by the façade units, expressing the life of activities within but without creating light pollution.
“What we have done in Hong Kong is to transform a former Police Station into a Cultural Centre. In Hong Kong and also in Mainland China this is still a totally new approach to architecture - an unusual thing to do because normally old buildings and entire neighbourhoods are being removed and being replaced by new ones. The principle is TABULA RASA. For us architects, also in the West, it was quite similar until not so long ago. Modernism was making pre-existing things look old, shabby and uncool. In daily life we all still carelessly throw away things we use every day instead of recycling and reintegrating them in a somewhat appropriate or even creative way. In the 1970s, when we started our practice, we first had to find and define our own architectural language. Re-Inventing and Re-Using pre-existing ideas and objects – not necessarily of a heroic period of the past, but simply of what we found in front of us – has become an essential element within our vocabulary since those early days and projects...think of early projects such as the ‘Marktplatz Basel’, ‘Stone House Tavole’, later of course ‘Tate Modern’ or now ‘Tai Kwun’. We adopted this strategy of working WITH instead of AGAINST the existing material world of objects because we found it natural and inspiring, often resulting in unexpected and innovative results.
There is no fundamental difference for such an approach, whether you do it in Basel or in London, in Liguria or in Hong Kong.”
PROJECT KEY DATA
Project Name: Tai Kwun, Centre for Heritage & Art
Location: 10 Hollywood Road, Hong Kong, China
Project Phases: 2006-2012
Realization Phases: 2011-2018
Client: The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Hong Kong
Client Representative: John Latter (Head of Property Project Management), Timothy Calnin (Director of Tai Kwun)
Project Team: Herzog & de Meuron Project Team
Site Area: 14,500 m²
Gross Floor Area (GFA): 27,000 m²
Number of Levels: 24
Footprint: 10,500 m²
Length: 140 m
Width: 110 m
Height: 50 m
Open Courtyard Area: 4,000 m²
Old Bailey Wing: foot print: 800 m²; floor area: 4,100 m²; dimensions: 33 m (L) x 25 m (W) x 26 m (H); building envelope area: 4,200 m² (including soffit & roof)
Arbuthnot Wing: foot print 550 m²; floor area 3，100 m²; dimensions 32 m (L) x 20 m (W) x 31 m (H); building envelope area 3,300 m² (including soffit & roof)
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