设计单位 华南理工大学建筑设计研究院有限公司 陶郅工作室
In Lu Xun's writing, Hundred-Plant Garden and Three-flavour Study are two places with completely different atmospheres: the former is a children's playground full of imagination, stories, and fun, while the latter is a "school" with rules, seriousness, and strictness. To this day, similar feelings are still common among primary and secondary school students. It seems that playing and learning are two things that cannot be achieved simultaneously: students should focus on learning in school, and playing can only serve as a supplement. Playing too much is a bad thing. Nowadays, designing a school that serves education, we believe that before designing, it is necessary to understand the development trends and latest characteristics of education, and see what education has become or is about to become today.
▲ 项目视频 ©明境建筑摄影
In contemporary times, the innovation of information technology has changed the way knowledge is stored and learned, enabling educators to explore new forms of education. Overall, primary education today places more emphasis on cultivating students' learning abilities rather than learning knowledge and skills. In teaching practice, many schools have also broken through the traditional administrative class teaching system and implemented exploratory and heuristic teaching. The teacher-student relationship has also changed, with students being the main body and teachers taking the lead, giving students more autonomy in learning. Teaching activities gradually blur the boundaries between "in class" and "out of class", and teaching venues also blur the boundaries between inside and outside the classroom. This new characteristic of educational development provides a positioning prerequisite for the subsequent project design.
普洱市思茅区第二小学曙光校区，占地面积约31000平方米，建筑面积约20000平方米，为一所36个班的小学。该学校在立项时被定位为区域的示范学校。设计之初，我们首先就对这一问题进行了思考：什么样的学校才能称作示范学校？解题思路可以有很多种，在本项目紧张的投资与有限的规模前提下，我们想尝试这一种思路：打造适应教育变化的全新校园空间，力图使教育的新变化在新校园中得以回应，突出教育因素在学校设计中的重要作用，为接下来其他学校的建设提供创作思路。The First light Campus of the Second Primary School in Simao District, Pu'er City is a 36 class primary school, covering an area of approximately 31000 ㎡ ,with a total floorage of approximately 20000 ㎡. The school is positioned as a regional demonstration school. At the beginning of the design, the team pondered: What kind of school can be called a demonstration? There are many solutions available, under the premise of tight investment and limited scale, we would like to try another approach: creating space to adapt to educational changes. We strive to respond to the new changes in education in school, highlight the important role of educational factors in school design, and provide creative ideas for other schools in the future.
The concept of play and learning is becoming increasingly vague and even integrated. Play can be used as a way of learning, and learning can also absorb the characteristics of play to attract students' interest and improve efficiency. Develop courses and teaching methods based on students' interests and enthusiasm to achieve teaching objectives in a comfortable atmosphere. In practical teaching, there are various forms of expression for play and learning: an impromptu speech, observations of insects and plants, aimless flashes, work exhibitions, and so on.
Based on the above research, the main focus of the team in the design of the new school is to provide diverse spaces for diverse teaching methods, and achieve the integration of playing and learning in education. Firstly, on a large scale. According to different grades and the stormy playground, the entire school is divided into six relatively independent blocks. Each block is combined based on factors such as site conditions and transportation routes to form multiple orderly and scaled courtyards, forming an overall framework.
Secondly, at the mesoscale, the design integrates professional classrooms and auxiliary rooms into service belts, which are staggered below the teaching building and located on different floors. The roofs of these service strips form outdoor platforms and vertical courtyards at different elevations, enabling each grade and class on each floor to have their own courtyards and shared courtyards that can be shared with other grades or classes. The staggered layout creates platforms and elevated floors at different elevations, enriching the form, level, and experience of the space.
Finally, in terms of human scale, design "undefined spaces" with various forms and scales around the ordinary classrooms of each teaching building based on the development and growth characteristics of students of different ages. In terms of spatial form, there are small stages for impromptu speeches and performances, reading corners for homework, and open classrooms for public courses. On a spatial scale, there are rest rooms for solitude, semi open discussion rooms for three or two students to gather temporarily, and open lecture halls for one class or even one grade students to share... Of course, these places do not have fixed usage methods and can be defined and restructured by teachers and students according to teaching.
Space is just a stage, education is the protagonist，and the design of teaching space is actually the design of teaching scenes. In the second primary school, we imagine that the entire school integrates learning, rest, gaming, and communication, with the space following the students' footsteps. In addition to regular learning, students can also plant "green vegetable beds" and "tall acacia trees" like Lu Xun here, taste "sour and sweet raspberries" and "eat the roots of Polygonum multiflorum that can become immortals", and play with friends，cicadas, fat wasps, and crickets，realize the combination of education and entertainment.Of course, our imagination is still limited, and these are only used as reference for teaching activities. In the later stage, it also depends on teachers and students to continue to explore and create according to the teaching objectives, presenting surprising usage scenarios for design.
In the design of the First light Campus of the Second Primary School in Simao District, Pu'er City, the team strives to serve the diverse teaching needs of education and meet the diverse behavioral needs of teachers and students through diverse spatial forms, creating the school as a paradise for teachers and students to learn and live, known as the "A paradise"."Fang Yuan" does not emphasize courtyards or academies, but rather a place where diverse learning can be conducted, but the purpose is the same, that is, to have happiness in the process.