设计单位 SHAU Indonesia
The Microlibrary Warak Kayu is the fifth built project within the Microlibrary series – an initiative to increase reading interest by creating socially-performative multifunctional community spaces with environmentally-conscious design and materials, which aim to serve low-income neighbourhoods.
Architecturally it represents SHAU's passive climate design, material and typology experimentation for the tropical context. The Microlibrary Warak Kayu is built at Taman Kasmaran, a public square in the city center with direct proximity with a river. The library serves not only the local neighborhood but is embedded in the larger city network and thus has an increased reach.
After numerous design iterations, the most favorable design concept was the one with the whole building being elevated, like a traditional 'rumah panggung' (house on stilts) because it does not only function as library but adds value by becoming a neighborhood and community center, at the same time being used to promote Indonesian engineered wood products and manufacturing capabilities.
By elevating the library, various spatial configurations, multiple programs and a wide range of activities can be offered. On the ground, is a large semi outdoor area which can be used for workshops, as well as a wide tribune seating at the entrance for watching presentations or movies, and to grab the kids' attention: a wooden swing. The ground area is framed by a ring of planter boxes to create a more intimate atmosphere.
Upstairs in the library itself, there is a net where kids can lie down, relax and read but also directly communicate with parents and friends in the space underneath.
百叶窗基于20世纪20年代德国的“Zollinger Bauweise”结构系统进行设计。它的形式呈现独特的菱形图案，正好与当地神话中的神兽“Warak Ngendog”龙鳞般的皮肤相似，这个神兽在该地每年的节庆活动中都会出现。因此，项目的名称为“Warak Kayu”，在印尼语中的意思是“木制的Warak”，很好地展现了这个设计的来源，能向更多人传播该含义。
The brise soleil was based on the 'Zollinger Bauweise' a construction system which was developed in the 1920's in Germany. It is a form of reciprocal system, resulting in a distinctive slightly shifted diamond pattern. This pattern happens to resemble a local mythical creature 'Warak Ngendog' and its dragon-like skin, displayed during annual festivals in Semarang. Hence the name Warak Kayu in Indonesian – meaning Wooden Warak, which is a positive narrative for communicating the design to a wider audience.
The Microlibrary Warak Kayu is designed around passive climatic design aspects. Semarang has a Tropical Monsoon Climate, the building is cooled down by means of cross ventilation and solar heat is prevented from entering using shading elements. The roof overhang provides shading around noon. An egg-crate like deep screen – Zollinger brise soleil is designed to block the lower sun altitude angles in the mornings and afternoons. Direct sunlight cannot enter the building in an unobstructed way. As a result, the diffuse-reflected sunlight is sufficient to read books without artificial lighting. In addition, the depth requirement of the Zollinger brise soleil was determined by the angular relationship between the sun path and building rotation. The cross-ventilation aspect also helps to drag the moisture out of the building and prevents books from getting moldy or damaged.
Wood as construction material outperforms many other materials regarding embodied energy, water and air pollution, carbon footprint, and it is also a re-growing material. Various types of wood products and wood species were used. For the main structural components like columns and beams Bangkirai-based FJL (Finger Joint Laminate) was used. Here only Bangkirai – a tropical hard wood with high weather resistance often used for outdoor furniture and decks – is used. The byproducts of this manufacturing in form of leftover and small-cut wood pieces are trimmed and processed for finger joint strip elements. That means, the whole structural elements also make use of factory leftovers. For decking and the Zollinger Brise Soleil different Meranti-based plywood types in various thicknesses were employed.
Apart from the concrete foundation all wooden elements are prefabricated at the factory in Semarang and then transported within 20 km to the site. Prefabrication of the elements at the factory, on-time delivery and on-site assembly means generally less harmful impacts on direct environment during assembly and at the same time, faster construction time. In addition, with prefabrication at the factory, due to a safer construction process but also higher degree of precision is reached; which in return produces less waste. The construction of the main structural elements uses a mixture of engineered connections and carpenter joints for prolonging the main beams due to manufacturing practicality.
Client: Arkatama Isvara Foundation: Michael Sutanto, Yessica Leoni Suryaharja
Location: Taman Kasmaran, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
Construction costs: 75,000USD
Site area: ~1000m²
Building height: 6.65m
Architect – SHAU Indonesia: Florian Heinzelmann & Daliana Suryawinata with Rizki Maulid Supratman, Muhammad Ichsan, Alfian Reza Almadjid, Multazam Akbar Junaedi
Structural Engineer: Joko Agus Catur Wibowo
Prefabrication – PT. Kayu Lapis Indonesia: Andre Sulistyo Purnomo, Dodong Budijanto Purnomo, Yosep Bayu Setiyawan
Contractor: RAH Contractor
Photography: KIE & team