安检亭视频 © 陈颢
Located on the Changjiang Road, Nanjing, the old Jiangsu Art Museum, used to be the predecessor of National Gallery of Fine Arts, built in 1936, was the first art museum in Chinese mode history. Architect Xi Fuquan (1902-1983), who studied in Germany, retued to China in 1929 with his Ph.D. degree awarded by Technische Universität Berlin and designed National Art Gallery (1936), National Congress Hall (1936) and Nanjing Branch of China National Bank (1936) for Nanjing, the capital city of China. Xi Fuquan’s works are presented in form of simplicity, integrating traditional Chinese elements into details, standing as the representatives of the New Nationalism Architecture in early 20th century of China.
The National Gallery of Fine Arts was completed on December 27, 1936 and opened in the next April. Although the building survived after the war broke out later, yet it was then used for other purposes. Not until the September of 1960 it was renamed as "Jiangsu Art Museum", which is still in use today.
The year of 2016 was the 80th anniversary of Jiangsu Art Museum, and the old museum was scheduled to re-open to the public during the New Year''s holiday. To meet the security requirements for the use of public buildings, additional security facilities were in need. Since the existing spatial condition could not accommodate additional facilities, security pavilion was decided to be built up at the square of the front entrance, to re-organize visitors’ circulations and the out-door space of the front square.
The museum is enclosed by low courtyard walls. A central axis appears from Chang Jiang Road to the square of front entrance strictly symmetrizes the layout. Three doors partitioned by columns make the front gate, east and west sides respectively locating a square flat top guard room. Granite-paved square welcomes visitors into front courtyard, leading them straightforward to the front entrance of the museum. Two sweet-scented osmanthus trees, two Oamental columns and two flagpoles are symmetrically distributed from South to North. Both sides of the square are occupied by lawns, oamented with tall and straight cedars symmetrically. Viewing from the central axis from Chang Jiang Road, the main building, framed by multilayered courtyard gate, sweet-scented osmanthus trees, columns, cedars, appears to be dignified.
The new added security pavilion cannot violate the historical symmetrical layout spread along the central axis, and should avoid the destroy of the lawns and trees in the site. Thus, the construction is basically limited within the area behind the guard room, and between the columns and lawns.
This design chooses the existing sweet-scented osmanthus tree in the site as the starting point, encircling and holding it up in the shape of a “flower-vase”, the continuous roof extending towards north and gradually narrowing, passing through the columns and lawns, terminating at the edge of the lawn. The contour of designed form draws back at the front edge of the guard room, the roof height aligning with its upper window edge, and slightly lower than the oamented column. The whole body is hidden behind the guard room. The narrowing curved contour leaves space between the guard room and column. The curve of coice delicately varies the visual perspective, pulling the main building forward, facing towards the audience.
The sweet-scented osmanthus tree becomes the transitional node linking the inteal and exteal space. The flower vase, encircling the sweet-scented osmanthus tree, introduces light beneath the roof, with the shadow of trees wobbling in the breeze. Under the guidance of the sweet-scented osmanthus tree and the generated light-shadow effect, audiences step into the security pavilion, the unique spatial configuration offering an innovative view of this historic building during their movement. This path stepping into art is filled with refreshing fragrance, specifically in Septembers and Octobers.
The continuous and homogenized form, together with construction conditions of the site, determines the light-weighted structure and its construction method of assembling prefabricated pieces. The main body of the pavilion employs steel structure, with GRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) entirely shaping the envelop and surfaces. Due to the transport restrictions on site, the entire form was divided into 26 pieces, prefabricated in the factory, and assembled on site.
The finishment of the old museum’s façade are artificial stone coated, most of which staying intact after 80 years, the coarse coating even presenting a sense of persistence after vicissitude. The sample of GRC surface layer was made to imitate the appearance of artificial stone coating. During material mixing, larger particles of gravel were added. The surface was chisel pitched before it got hardened. "suspended artificial stone" makes the security pavilion and the old museum integrate as a seamless whole.
The curved roof gently holds up the sweet-scented osmanthus tree, the space tying a knot under the tree, slipping into the low and flat shadows. Accompanied by the delicate variations of sombeess and brightness of the tree’s shadow and its subtle fragrance, audiences step away from the street hubbub, and enter into history and art…
This project took two and a half months, from design to the completions of construction. Osmanthus Vase -security pavilion was completed on schedule for the 80th anniversary of National Gallery of Fine Arts. Tacitu material shapes flowing space, the light and new structure is wished to be admitted by the 80-year long art history, jointly with the old museum, enjoying their upcoming time in peace, and imprinting momentos.
建筑设计：东南大学风土建筑工作室 张彤 姚远 孙柏 肖葳