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拆分功能,塑造肌理:三岔口的公厕 / 尌林建筑设计事务所

拆分功能,塑造肌理:三岔口的公厕 / 尌林建筑设计事务所
编辑:朱英蓓(实习生);校对:朱英蓓(实习生) | 2019.08.08 21:53
建筑与保留杉木的关系 摄影:赵奕龙

项目地点  浙江省杭州市萧山区河上镇东山村

设计单位  尌林建筑设计事务所

建造时间  2018.10—2018.12
建筑面积  138平方米


 

东山公厕位于浙江省杭州市萧山区的一处村落中,是萧山区乡村振兴背景下的公厕更新示范点。萧山区的村落是江浙一带乡村类型的典型缩影,村落整体风貌混杂且富有包容性,村内的传统建筑基本消失,审美流变,常驻人口大多外出务工。

Dongshan Public Toilet, located in a village in Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, is a pilot demonstration for public toilets amid rural revitalization. The local villages, epitomizing the typical rural landscape in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, bears both mixed style and charactersitics of different regions. The aesthetics have changed as traditional buildings in the village disappears and resident population seek jobs in the cities. In this context, we tried to fit in the villages of Xiaoshan.

 

建筑区位 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
村落鸟瞰 ©尌林建筑设计事务所

在萧山区,基本上每个村落里都会配有一处公厕供村民们使用,以满足村民的日常需要。但很多公厕的卫生环境和配套设施已经完全满足不了当代村民的需求,村民们对脏乱差的公厕环境提出了抱怨,因此公厕的更新就变得非常迫切。在这样的综合环境下,建筑团队参与萧山几个村落的景观空间更新梳理,设计内容就涵盖了村里的公厕。

In the District, a public toilet is available in every village to meet the needs of villagers. However, the sanitary condition and supporting facilities of many public toilets fail to meet the modern standards and villagers started to lodge complaints on the disorderly environment, which calls for an immediate renovation. We updated and sorted out the landscape of several villages in Xiaoshan, and the design covered public toilets.

 

原场地公厕鸟瞰 摄影:赵奕龙
原场地公厕 摄影:赵奕龙

该公厕的场地是一块小的三角地,其中两侧边界是可车行的村道,一侧是靠着一个三层楼的现代民房,场地形态和边界被周边环境限定的很明确。原场地两条路交汇处的角上有一颗形态良好的杉树,被建筑团队保留下来。公厕的不远处有一条河和一个公共广场,傍晚时分经常会有村民沿着河边散步,广场也被村民用来做运动和举办各种活动,场地的空间属性产生了一定的公共性。

The site of the public toilet is a small triangular area, with village roads on the two sides. On the one side, there is a modern residential building with three floors, whose shape and boundary are clearly defined by the surrounding environment. We keep a well-shaped cedar tree at the corner of roads intersection. There is a river and a public square not far from the public toilet. In the evening, villagers often walk along the river for sports or various events on the square, which gives the venues public spatial attributes.

 

公厕在村落中的位置 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
建筑与旁边民居的关系 摄影:赵奕龙

设计团队在设计公厕的时候最直接的一个感受,就是希望这个空间能够成为一处公共性很强并且带有一丝包容性的场所,村民们在上厕所之余还能把更多的生活的、琐碎的活动带入进来。

When designing the public toilet, we hope it will become a public and inclusive place where villagers can bring in more daily and trivial activities.

 

俯瞰三岔口的公厕 摄影:赵奕龙

 

打破开放性和私密性的边界

Breaking the boundaries of the public and the private

 

公厕要有更多公共活动的可能性,首先需要做功能上的拆分,打破传统公厕封闭私密的刻板认知和平面布局。在此目的下,设计团队将公厕的定义解构,把使用功能拆散成:男厕、女厕、工具间、残卫间、洗手台、休息等候座椅,将这些功能区都独立开,变成一个个自由独立的功能体块,重新做组合。

To increase the possibility for public activities, the public toilets should conduct function separation in the first place, breaking the stereotypes and layout of traditional public toilets. We deconstruct the definition of public toilets and split its functions into: male toilets, female toilets, tool rooms, toilets for the disabled, sinks, rest waiting seats, and these functional areas are separated and recombined into independent functional blocks.

 

概念生成 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
拆解的公厕和村民的活动 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
剖段面关系 ©尌林建筑设计事务所

把功能拆分开来之后,空间的可能性变得更多样了,洗手台变成村民洗菜,洗杂物的地方,休息等候座椅变成村民无事闲聊唠嗑的地方,屋顶之下的灰空间变成村民可以自由穿行的公共性空间。空间演变成了一种交流的场所,带给村民更多使用的可能,村民们在公厕相遇聊天产生交流,增进邻里关系,让公厕慢慢的发挥了更多的驿站公共属性,变成了村民的一个小聚集点。

During the reorganization, we found that the space functions have become diversified after function separation. The sink becomes a place for villagers to wash vegetables and groceries, the rest waiting seat becomes a place for villagers to chitchat and the gray space under the roof becomes a public space that the villagers can walk freely. The space has evolved into a place for communication, which brings more possibilities to the villagers. They meet and chat in the public toilets to exchange ideas, get together, so that the public toilets serve the public function of the station and a gathering place for villagers.

 

穿过公厕的村民,往返在家和菜地之间 摄影:赵奕龙
位于三岔口的公厕 摄影:赵奕龙

 

轻与重的“博弈”

The "game" between the light and the heavy

 

建筑的形态组织逻辑和材料使用逻辑很明确,与地面一体的几个功能各异的体块,散落无规则分布,墙面材质与地面材质属性一致,前者为掺杂黑白小石子的水磨石,后者为掺杂灰色中等颗粒石子的水洗石,一个细腻一个粗糙,颜色相近而质感肌理微差。

The organization and material use logics of the building are very clear. Several blocks serving different functions integrated with the ground are randomly distributed. The wall material is consistent with the ground material properties with the former being terrazzo doped with black and white pebbles while the latter being a washed stone mixed with gray medium-grain stones. One is exquisite while the other is rough, with similar colors and slightly different textures.

 

与顶面一体的十几根白色钢柱同样不规则分布,穿插在体块的空隙当中,柱子与体块形成一种更自由无序的状态,地面体块系统与顶面柱子系统呈相互嵌套,相互咬合的逻辑关系,形成轻与重、白与灰、公共性与私密性的两两关系,空间方向性被模糊、人可以随意穿越、视线可以穿透、空气可以自由流动,营造出一个自由、轻盈、流动、轻松的公共空间。

The dozens of white steel columns integrated with the top surface are also irregularly distributed and interspersed in the gaps of the blocks. The column and the block are freely and disorderly integrated. The ground block and the top column are embedded with each other, constituting the relationship of light and heavy, white and gray, public and private. The spatial orientation is blurred that people can traverse, visual line can penetrate, air can flow, creating a public space featuring freedom, lightness, flowing, and relaxation.

 

生成策略 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
平面图 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
西立面图 ©尌林建筑设计事务所

能够理解轻,就能够理解重,轻重不是量化意义上的轻重,而是相对意义的轻重,空间有虚实,材质有深浅,尺寸有厚薄,感受就会有轻重,最终还是会体现到感受上。

If you understand lightness, you understand heaviness. Both concepts are not considered in quantitative but in relative sense. The feelings vary due to the degree of realness of space, the depth of texture and the thickness of size, all of which will be reflected.

 

村民在开放的半室外空间穿行 摄影:赵奕龙
阳光照进盒子之间的空隙 摄影:赵奕龙

 

建筑设计概念与建造预算较劲

The "competition" between architectural design concept and construction budget

 

项目的落地过程中受建造预算的限制,最初建筑设计方案的一部分效果没有能够完整的实现,这也是这个小的公厕项目给建筑团队留下的遗憾和宝贵经验。

The project implementation is constrained by the construction budget. Part of initial architectural design effects have not been fully materialized, which is also the regret and valuable experience we gained from this small-scale public toilet project.

 

公厕改造的项目是整个村子景观环境提升改造的一部分,所以公厕的建造预算刚开始没有被明确的限定,只是从一个村子总的预算中按比例划出来建造公厕。所以建筑团队在刚开始做建筑方案设计的时候就没有过多关注公厕的建造成本,方案也顺利通过,等施工图画完、预算做好之后才发现建造成本偏高。

The renovation project of public toilets is part of the upgrading of village landscape. Therefore, the construction budget of public toilets has not been clearly defined at the beginning, but drawn from the overall budget of a village. As a result, we did not pay much attention to the construction cost of public toilets during the design. After it was approved, construction drawings completed, and budge made, we found then costs too high.

 

因此,建筑团队在保证建筑概念基本完整的情况下,对原方案的一部分效果进行调整,删减掉了本来可以登上残卫方块顶部的楼梯,同时取消掉了原本独立的工具室体块,将其与残卫合二为一。每个体块的顶板也被取消,顶部的有色玻璃天窗就同时被消失了,体块间的不同室内氛围被弱化了。

To address this issue, we made adjustment to partial effects of initial plan based on complete architectural concept, removing the stairs that could have been on the top of the toilet for the disabled and the original independent tool room block, integrating it with the toilet for the disabled. The top plate of each block was also removed and the colored glass skylight at the top also disappeared along the way, weakening the different indoor atmospheres between the blocks.

 

方案中功能体块关系 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
工具室体块与残位合二为一 摄影:赵奕龙

预算的超出在最初做方案的时候是没有想到的,导致落地的时候方案的一部分概念效果打了折扣,这算是小小的遗憾。建筑团队认为,在项目预算限制的情况下保留住了方案最核心的概念算是比较幸运的,通过公厕项目建造体会到了在方案设计阶段知晓建造预算的重要性,这是宝贵的经验。

The budget overrun was out of expectation when the initial plan was made, resulting in inadequate rendering of effects when the project was in place. This is a regret. Fortunately, the core concept of the plan is retained in the case of project budget constraints. We have gained valuable experience from building public toilet project and come to understand the importance of the making construction budget in plan design.

 
方案中体块与道路的关系 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
方案中登上平台的楼梯 ©尌林建筑设计事务所
楼梯被取消 摄影:赵奕龙

 

村民喜欢来公厕上厕所

Loving the public toilet

 

公厕造好之后,建筑团队回到村里,调研公厕的使用的情况,听周边村民反映公厕被使用得还挺好:大家都喜欢到新造好的公厕上厕所,早上高峰期甚至都不够用,大家觉得白白轻轻的公厕还挺洋气的;晚上厕所的灯光亮起来之后,也能成为村中心的一处指明灯。

After its construction, we went back to the village to conduct research on the use of public toilets. Feedback from villagers are positive. The toilets were so popular that there is not enough space during peak hours in the morning. The white and light public toilets are quite novel to the villagers. Being lit up at night, the public toilets can also become a guiding light in the village center.

 

村民在开放空间中闲聊 摄影:赵奕龙
设计师在项目落成后的回访 摄影:赵奕龙

该厕所施工的项目经理就是本村的村民,他看到建筑团队在给公厕摄影,就带着很自豪的表情跟摄影师说:“这个公厕是我造的,漂亮吧。”实际上,因为资金预算问题,设计的方案在施工的时候被删减了一部分内容,很多项目都会遇到这样的问题,但是建筑团队庆幸的是最初的设计理念基本实现了,跟村民的聊天让他们感受最为深刻和开心的是:村民们很乐意来他们设计的公厕上厕所。

The project manager of the toilet construction is a local. Seeing we were taking pictures of the public toilet, he said to the photographer proudly: "This public toilet is built by me, isn’t it beautiful?" He told us a lot of stories in the construction process. In fact, part of the design plan was deleted during construction because of the budgetary problem, which is encountered in many projects. But fortunately, our original design concept was basically realized. In fact, what made me most happy and has left the strongest impression on me in the chat with the villagers is that the villagers are willing to go to the public toilets we designed.

 

从小河远眺建成的公厕 摄影:赵奕龙

 

项目模型 ▽

 

手工模型 ©尌林建筑设计事务所

 

完整项目信息

项目名称:三岔口的公厕

项目地点:浙江省杭州市萧山区河上镇东山村

项目业主:杭州市河上镇人民政府

项目类型:乡村公厕

设计时间:2018.7—2018.8

建造时间:2018.10—2018.12

方案设计:尌林建筑设计事务所

主持建筑师:陈林

项目建筑师:陈松、何雨韩、王明皓(实习)

现场把控:何建刚(朴筑空间设计事务所)

施工图设计:杭州天元建筑设计院

施工单位:浙江萧建集团有限公司

结构形式:钢结构、砖墙

建筑材料:水洗石、水磨石、铝板

建筑造价:36万
建筑面积:138平方米
建筑摄影:赵奕龙

 


 

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