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在住宅建筑师的战场,一厘米的宽裕也是胜利:小户型之神伊礼智专访

在住宅建筑师的战场,一厘米的宽裕也是胜利:小户型之神伊礼智专访
作者:胡佳林 | 编辑:原源 | 2019.03.11 17:26

是一栋两层楼的民居,白色的外墙,因为有些年月了而变成淡淡的黄。院子里的杂草生命力异常旺盛,一部分爬出围墙垂落在街道。伴随着明晃晃的灼烈日光,在一个春末夏初的早晨,我敲响了伊礼工作室的门。

It was a morning at the end of spring and the beginning of summer, when I knocked the door of Ire Satoshi's studio open.

 

伊礼总是谦谦有礼却笑容和煦。让人想起他的家乡,四季温暖的岛屿,冲绳。

Ire is gentle and polite, always wearing a warm smile. He reminds me of his hometown, Okinawa, an island with an agreeable climate throughout the year.

 

伊礼智事务所 摄影:杨颂南
采访中的伊礼智 摄影:杨颂南

“冲绳作为一个独立的岛屿,远离本土,有着与众不同的自然环境,孕育着自己独特的风土……但不仅仅是如此。冲绳有着当地的文化,但在漫长的古代,也就是琉球王朝时期作为中国的附属国,也浸染了浓重的中国文化的底色。同时,它在‘二战’时被美军占领,成为美军基地,而它又属于日本。”在伊礼的眼中,冲绳混合着各种气味,复杂神秘又平易近人。

For Ire, Okinawa is mixed with a myriad of smells. It is both mysterious and amiable. He has been living in Tokyo for decades, but any topic related to his hometown would make him talk volubly; and the influence of Okinawa on him goes far beyond: it is everywhere in his architecture.

 

有关冲绳的话题让这个在东京居住了好几十年的“故乡人”滔滔不绝,但不至于此——在他的建筑中也随处可见冲绳的影子。伊礼智是日本的住宅建筑师,在他的心中“住宅”和“家”被画上等号。当我们谈论住宅时,我们可以仅仅谈论诸如“空间”“动线”“视线”等等的理性、冰冷的词汇,而当我们谈论“家”时,我们却自然而然地流露出温馨的情感。伊礼总是在住宅设计中装进自己的情绪,装进故乡的影子——在守谷之家,他参考了冲绳古民居“邸”,压低了建筑的体量,将材料和细节打磨到极致,彷佛和周围的开发商宣战;而在湖畔之家,他将建造时挖出的石块留下,在庭院中做了小小的石壁,粗糙的肌理让人联想到冲绳用珊瑚堆砌而成的外墙。“业主们有的时候会戏称我是冲绳流,”他推了推眼镜笑着说。

Ire Satoshi is a Japanese residential architect, for whom “house” equals “home”. He can always fill his works with emotions, and a bit of reminiscence of his hometown: he incorporated the elements of traditional Okinawan houses into the House of Moriya; when building the lakeside house, he kept the rocks unearthed and built a small garden screen with them—the unassuming texture reminds people of the exteriors of Okinawan houses made of corals. “Sometimes my clients say I’m from the School of Okinawa,” he said with a smile, pushing up his glasses.

 

冲绳民居 ©伊礼智
冲绳民居 ©伊礼智
守谷の家外观 ©伊礼智
守谷の家 ©伊礼智

比起许多建筑师对抽象又隐晦的语汇的偏好,伊礼的建筑显得过分明白。他压低的屋檐、恰到好处的幽暗,是为了让人放松身心;他使用几重的窗户构造,是为了获取良好的通风环境;他研发泥土木材等自然材质,是为了营造健康的居住环境……一目了然,简单清晰,没有更多的深意。而看到他的房子,就能想象到他有着一双质朴而温暖的双手。这双手拿着笔在图面上来回滑动,不是在考虑精美的黄金比,不是在考虑上镜的空间构成,而是在考虑如何让收纳更隐形,如何让厨房的动线更精简,如何让使用住宅的这一家人在共同拥有它的同时又保证自己的私密空间。那是住宅建筑师的战场,在狭小的空间里为人拼命争取哪怕一厘米宽裕的胜利。

Unlike many architects, who are fans of abstract and obscure terms, Ire's architecture seems overly lucid. Take a look at his houses, and you will instantly know they must have been built by a pair of warm and modest hands. It was those hands that hold a drawing pen, figuring out more invisible storage solutions, easier movement in the kitchen, and how to give everyone some privacy when sharing the house with the rest of the family. This is the war that every architect fight, and any extra room within the small space, even if it is only 1 centimeter wider, would be considered as a victory.

 

而这又何尝不透露着另一种哲学呢?一种源于生活的哲学。

Isn’t it another form of philosophy, one that originates from daily life?

 

熊本・龙田之家外观 ©伊礼智
熊本・龙田之家 ©伊礼智
熊本・龙田之家室内外望 ©伊礼智
熊本・龙田之家室内 ©伊礼智
熊本・龙田之家平面图 ©伊礼智
熊本・龙田之家平面图 ©伊礼智

 

 

对话 The Dialogue

Hu = 胡佳林,Ire = 伊礼智

 

Hu  我们先谈谈冲绳吧。

Hu  Let us start with Okinawa.

 

Ire  冲绳的气候炎热潮湿。东京的夏天虽然也是这种气候,但在冲绳,这种气候持续的时间很长。不寒冷,气温不会低于10度以下。由于这种气候,住宅的设计不会过多考虑保温性能,而是会有很多开口部。开放性的建筑是冲绳的特征。这种开放性给我带来了很大的影响。

Ire  Winter is a freezing season for most places in Japan, except Okinawa. We generally have very strict requirements for thermal insulation materials, and we build houses in a precise manner to avoid any gap.

 

在日本,冲绳之外的地方冬天都非常寒冷,所以会对保温材料的性能要求很高,用精确的施工工法防止各种缝隙的发生。只有在冲绳,即使是内外贯通的空间,也会令人非常舒适。对我来说,与室外相联的空间很有魅力。我的设计也经常被评价为非常重视这种与室外空间的关联。

Only Okinawa is an exception. Because of the humid and warm climate (local temperature never fells below 10 degrees) there, insulation properties are usually not the top concern when building a house; quite on the contrary, the house will have many openings. The indoor-outdoor blending creates very comfortable space, which I find profoundly attractive, and my designs are thought to really put premium on this kind of connection.

 

Hu  伊礼先生的设计经常被说成是“冲绳流”。我觉得这个地域性的身份标签非常有意思。东京出身的建筑师就从来不会被称为“东京流”。

Hu  People always describe your design as 'Okinawa Style', and I found this regional tag an interesting one.

 

Ire  是的。冲绳的民居很有特色,是室内外相贯通的,这是它的空间传统。从儿提时代起,我便是在这样的空间里成长。虽然是非常小的房子,但由于它内外空间的一体性,让我感觉到非常快乐。在设计中,我有意识地在有效利用当地特色,同时加入这种“冲绳式”的开放性空间。让居住的人体会到这种“冲绳式”的快乐,是个很单纯的念头。

Ire  Yes, Okinawan architecture shares a common characteristic of being open. The boundaries between the interior and exterior are blurred, which is a spatial tradition in Okinawa. I spent my childhood in a space like this; although it was pretty small in size, the way in which the indoor and outdoor blends together gave me a great deal of happy memories. In my own works, I would intentionally integrate the Okinawan openness into my design while making full use of local materials.

 

冲绳民居 ©伊礼智

Hu  我注意这或许成就了伊礼先生设计中很有趣的一点。住宅建筑一般都是内向的。尤其在日本,由于住宅和街道的关系往往很接近,大部分的住宅为了确保隐私都是后退的、封闭的。但在伊礼先生的作品中,却比较少见地看到一种开放性,比如琵琶湖之家。

Hu  This is perhaps the most interesting thing about Ire’s works. Residential architecture is usually introverted, and this is especially the case in Japan, where most houses stand quite close to the roads and streets, thus are very introverted and enclosed for privacy concerns. However, a sense of openness has been a prominent feature of Ire’s works, which is very rarely seen in Japanese architecture, and we can see it in the example of the House of Lake Biwa.

 

琵琶湖之家外观 ©伊礼智

Ire  琵琶湖之家的基地位置非常好,在琵琶湖的北部。设计的概念是融入风景的住宅。面向琵琶湖的房间有很大的开窗,造园室甚至精心安排了北侧庭院的风景。庭院里种植了红松,并将这种植物延续到琵琶湖畔,使庭院的风景成为琵琶湖的一部分,或者说将琵琶湖的风景引入庭院。另外,基地的北侧原来便植有樱花,我们在基地范围内补全了樱花的树列。到了春天,主人在二楼的茶室召开茶会。我设计了一个无柱空间,并将窗户的高度压低与樱花齐平。窗户有三层,从障子到百叶到透明玻璃,可以一层层地打开,完全打开的瞬间充满戏剧性。在樱花季节,这成了主人招待客人的固定节目。

Ire  The base of the House of Lake Biwa is very well located on the northern bank of the lake. My design concept is a home that blends with the landscape. The room facing Lake Biwa has a large window. The landscaper put a lot of efforts into designing the garden view of the northern courtyard. He planted Korean pine in the courtyard and all the way to the lake shore, making the house part of the lake landscape, or maybe the other way round. The northern side of the base was originally planted with cherry trees, and we planted more of them in the rest parts of the base. In the spring, the host would hold tea parties in the tea room on the second floor. Towards this end, I designed a column-free space and lowered the height of the window so that the view is flush with cherry blossoms. The window has three layers, from shoji to louver to clear glass, which can be opened layer by layer, and the moment of full opening is always full of drama. It has become a fixed program for the host to entertain guests in the cherry blossom season.

 

琵琶湖之家 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家室内,樱花季时 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家,总平面图 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家,平面图 ©伊礼智
琵琶湖之家,剖面图 ©伊礼智

Hu  另外,伊礼先生的代表作之一,守谷之家,也是基于这种设计理念。

Hu  The House of Moriya, one of the most well-known works of Ire, was also based upon this idea.

 

Ire  对,这个房子非常注重半室外空间的处理。我成长的房子非常小,但是内外有很好的空间联系。对我来说,不仅仅墙壁之内是生活空间,墙壁之外也是生活空间。屋顶在室内和室外之间,向外延伸得很长,不如说这个半室外的空间才是最丰富的。如果将这种半室外的空间处理得当,即使尺度很小,也能创造出令人愉快的氛围。

Ire  Exactly. That house pays a lot of attention to the design of indoor-outdoor space. As I mentioned, I grew up in a very small house, but the indoor and outdoor space were well connected—for me, both the interior and exterior area constitute my living space. The eaves of my home extended far outwards, and that semi-outdoor space under the eaves is the most interesting space in the house. If handled properly, even a tiny area can be a pleasant place.

 

守谷の家 ©伊礼智
守谷の家 ©伊礼智

Hu  确实,和边上开发商建造的房子相比,守谷之家的体量非常小。

Hu  Compared to the neighboring houses made by developers, the House of Moriya is very small in volume.

 

Ire  大的房子,需要更多的建材,更多的土地,使用暖气时会消耗更多的能源。我的老师经常教导我,足够就好,多余只会增加负担。守谷家是个三口之家,在使用上是不需要很多面积的。还有一点,守谷先生是工务店的社长。他在年少时期非常贫穷,吃过很多苦,便觉得有了足够的空间就已然是一件很幸福的事情了。

Ire  Larger houses require more land and building materials, and consume more energy when the heating is on. My teacher often tells me that sufficient is on point, while extra is burdensome. The Moriya is just a family of three, so they don't really need much space. Moreover, Mr. Moriya, though president of a civil engineering company at present, comes from humble origins and has had many rough times. For him, a sufficient space is already good enough.

 

守谷之家不但尺度小,它的天花板也很低。在日本,人们常说好的建筑就是低的建筑。特别是挑檐又低又深的空间,非常优雅。而周围的房子,都是有名的开发商的产品,住宅作为一种商品被贩卖,所以尽量把体量做大,把天花板做高,开很大的窗。外立面看起来是砖,其实是陶制的外立面装饰材料。而对于我们来说,是希望用不大却足够用的体量,用真实的材料,构建一个长期居住的家。

The house of Moriya is not only small in size, but also low in floor height. We Japanese believe that in terms of architecture, being good means being low, especially those houses with low roofs and deep space, very elegant. The surrounding houses are all made by famous house makers. They are sold as a commodity, so people just make bigger volumes, higher ceilings and wider windows. The external walls of those houses seem to be made with bricks, while in fact it was ceramic decorative materials. For us, we hope to build a home for long-term dwelling, with a small but sufficient size and real materials.

 

Hu  真实的材料指的是?

Hu  What do you mean by real materials?

 

Ire  木材、土墙。结构是用良好的木材来完成的,而非集成材。好的材料,是会呼吸的。在守谷之家使用的墙面材料,可以吸收气味,并将其分解。这样的家,是健康的,适合长期居住。

Ire  Wood and clay. We build the structure of the house in real wood rather than laminated wood. Good materials can breathe. The wall materials we used in the house of Moriya could absorb the smell and then dissolve it.

 

Hu  土墙中使用的土是市面上贩卖的建材么?

Hu  Do you use the clay sold in the market for the clay walls?

 

Ire  是。以前日本的土墙都是采当地的泥土,但现在日本市场上的一些生产商在卖作为建材的土,而且是纯天然的。

Ire  Yes, I do. In the past, we used local clay to build clay walls, but nowadays there are some Japanese companies selling commercial clay as building materials, and it is completely natural.

 

Hu  当时就已经有这种土墙的材料了么?

Hu  We already have this kind of clay in sale at that time?

 

Ire  当时是我和生产商共同研发的这种材料。

Ire  I developed it together with the producer.

 

守谷の家室内 ©伊礼智
守谷の家室内 ©伊礼智
守谷の家室内 ©伊礼智
守谷の家室内 ©伊礼智

Hu  既然说到了小空间,您能说说令您感动的小空间么?

Hu  Can you share with us a case of small space design that impressed you?

 

Ire  日本有一个很有名的旅店,叫俵屋。我认为它是日本最好的旅店,凝聚了京都的文化。这家旅店有近300年的历史,在大概50年前,我老师的老师,吉田顺三先生设计了它的新馆。住在那里的时候,发现那里错落着各种小空间,二叠的空间,也就是两张榻榻米大小,非常惹人怜爱。

Ire  There is a very famous ryokan (inn) in Japan, called Tawaraya. I believe it is the best inn in the country and the epitome of Kyoto culture. It has a history of nearly 300 years, and the teacher of my teacher, Mr. Junzō Yoshimura, designed the new building for it 50 years ago. During my stay there, I noticed many small spaces, they are just the size of two tatami mats, but very adorable.

 

Hu  小中见大似乎是日本的长处。

Hu  It seems that Japanese people know how to see big things in small ones.

 

Ire  对,日本擅长于将很大的东西压缩到很小的尺度,比如随声听就是日本人发明的,把一套巨大的音响设施集结到一个很小的装置中。日本的坪庭也是这样,在一个一两平方米的庭院中装入浩瀚的风景。这种文化或者说意识,存在于我身上,大概也存在于绝大多数日本人的身上。

Ire  That’s correct. Japanese seem to be very good at compressing everything into a very small size. For example, we invented the Walkman by compressing an enormous stereo to a small player on the go. The same is true for Japanese tsuboniwa (pot gardens), which includes a wildly rich landscape in a courtyard just the size of one to two square meters. This culture, or awareness, can be found not only in me, but in most Japanese people.

 

Hu  但在设计小空间时对尺度感的把握非常困难。在刚好适合的尺度里,小空间既有安全感又让人舒适。然而稍微小一点,就让人感觉比较压抑。这种尺度感在设计中要如何把控呢?

Hu  But it's extremely difficult to walk a fine line in small space design.

 

Ire  首先是体验。在实际体验空间的过程中,比如像是在茶室中,虽然尺度上非常小,有的不过是二叠,但在实际进入的时候,会发现即使是小空间也能产生丰富的心境。然后去分析。比如虽然茶室很小,但是在到达茶室之前的茶庭中充满了乐趣。或者是茶室的开窗方式,光进入小空间的方式。这些东西是需要被关注的。窗不是越大越好,有的时候反而是很小的开口才能让漂亮的光束射入。单单的“小”并没有创造茶室,是精益求精的细节创造了它。

Ire  Good experience is our top priority. Take the tea room design as an example, the Japanese tea room is usually very small, sometimes only the size of two tatami mats, but when you are actually sitting in it, even a small space creates a rich variety of experiences. Now if we take a closer loot at it, some tea rooms have interesting tea gardens in front, some have carefully designed windows to introduce light into the room. When it comes to windows, being bigger does not necessarily mean being better; small openings let in beautiful beams of light, and it is precisely through the refinement of details that tea rooms are built.

 

伊礼智事务所室内 摄影:杨颂南
伊礼智事务所室内 摄影:杨颂南
伊礼智事务所室内 摄影:杨颂南
伊礼智事务所室内 摄影:杨颂南

……

 

 

伊礼笑着说,当他完成自己的第一个住宅作品九间之家的时候,他的老师曾跟他说,“开始做小空间后,你就再也做不了大房子了”。从那之后的四十多年,伊礼智做了几百个小住宅,每个细节都在拼命努力地把一个拥挤的空间,变成一个小而美的家。

Ire said, when he finished his first residential project, which was a house of nine rooms, his teacher told him, “if you start your career with small space design, you will never be able to design for big houses.”

 

媒体多称伊礼智为“小户型之神”。但我想在这位笑容温暖的老先生心里,并非住着一个神,而是住着千千万万个普通人。

The media applaud Ire as “the God of Tiny Houses”, but I think the resident in this old gentleman's heart is not a god, instead, it is tens of thousands of common folks.

 

伊礼智事务所室内 摄影:杨颂南

 


 

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