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走上斜梁去观景:地拉那金字塔 / MVRDV

翻译:赖含章(实习生);编辑:易智丽(实习生);校对:陈妍 | 2018-06-01 15:44 | 分享  

MVRDV

https://www.mvrdv.nl/zh/home

Aerial c MVRDV

方案鸟瞰效果图  ©MVRDV

 

地处“地拉那市中心的前恩维尔霍查博物馆,由一群建筑师在20世纪80年代设计而成,其中包括当时在任的阿尔巴尼亚共和国总统的女儿Pranvera Hoxha和她的丈夫Klement Kolneci。在科索沃战争期间,这个建筑一直作为北大西洋公约组织(NATO)的临时基地、夜间俱乐部和活动空间持续使用着。尽管近年一直有计划将其改造成一个国家剧院,但这些计划却从未实现,导致该建筑已经荒废了十余年。该项目旨在把这个共产主义时代的地标性建筑物改造成为本市青年的科技和教育中心。

Situated in the centre of Tirana, the former Enver Hoxha Museum designed in the 1980s by a group of architects including the then president’s daughter Pranvera Hoxha and her husband Klement Kolneci. Throughout the years it has also served as a temporary base for NATO during the War in Kosovo, a night club and as an event space. In recent years there were plans to transform the structure into a national theatre. These plans never materialized meaning the building has been left to decay for more than a decade.the Project will aim to reimagine the communist-era landmark as a new hub for technology and education that serves the municipality’s youth. 

 

这个金字塔建筑在城市环境中呈现出独特的外轮廓,有着强大的存在感。它从未脱离公众视野,成为了无数抗议与示威活动的据点。尽管大楼的立面大面积地使用玻璃,但这栋建筑仍然看起来十分封闭并且难以进入。室内改造不仅没有疏通中庭,也为人们的空间活动增加了更多的障碍。

The pyramid has a unique silhouette and a strong presence in the urban environment. It never left the public attention and was a centre point in numerous protest and a background for demonstrations. Despite the generous use of glass on its façade the building appears to be hermetically sealed and inaccessible. The attempt to transform the interior clogged the atrium and created even more obstacles for one to experience the space.

 

该项目旨在把建筑改造得更具公共性,使建筑能够容纳人的活动:项目把已有的混凝土梁变成了通往金字塔屋顶的楼梯。内部的横梁打通成中空之后,内部空间将会用作观景平台或者展览空间。玻璃将穿插进楼梯中,从而引导自然光进入室内。地面上还会另外开设入口通道以增加人的流动性。

The redesign will repurpose the pyramids concrete beams into stairs that provide access to the rooftop. Internal beams will be made hollow to serve as viewing platforms or display spaces, while the stairs will be punctuated with glass to infuse natural light into the interior. Additional entryways will also be created on the ground to increase accessibility.

 

Exterior view c MVRDV

外观效果图  ©MVRDV

 

建筑底层的四面被打通后,结构变得更加通透,而建筑的屋顶被改造成可上人的屋顶,它为城市提供了一个新的观景平台。大楼的空间内部种满绿色植物,使这个建筑与周围环境逐渐融为一体。

The project aims to give the building back to the public. By opening the ground floor from all sides the structure becomes transparent. By making the façade roof accessible and scalable a new perspective to the city appears and by flooding the interior of the space with green the object becomes one with its surroundings.

 

Interior c MVRDV

建筑室内效果图  ©MVRDV

 

“我们会把它变得像公园构筑物一样开放,它是可以同时有绿化、人流、容纳合作交流的空间,”马斯补充道,“我们会把梁变得更加容易接近和安全,这样我们就可以爬到顶上,在欣赏建筑的同时观览地拉那的城市景观。我们创作了一座人能够栖息的纪念碑。”

“We will open it up to its surroundings as a structure in the park, that can be populated by people, trees, and containers for co-working,” Maas added. “We will make the beams accessible and safe so that we can all climb to the top and celebrate the structure, with views of the city of Tirana. We create an inhabited monument.”

 

Press Image c Gent Onuzi

©Gent Onuzi

 

Location: Tirana, Albania 

Year: 2018+ 

Client: Municipality of Tirana 

Program: 11,800m² educational facility for youths 

Budget: Undisclosed 

Design: MVRDV - Winy Maas, Jacob Van Rijs and Nathalie De Vries 

Design Team: Winy Maas, Stefan de Koning with Ronald Hoogeveen, Boris Tikvarski, Stavros Gargaretas, Leo Stuckardt and Guido Boeters. 

Partners

Youth centre management: TUMO 

Images: MVRDV, Gent Onuzi 


版权声明:本文由MVRDV授权发布,禁止以有方编辑后版本转载。

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作为整个孟加拉首都综合体的核心部分,国会建筑(National Assembly Building)的设计时间几乎同整个综合体同样长久。它完整的类型构成包括了九个经过简化的类型建筑:北面的入口花园、南面的清真寺、西面的来访贵宾室、东面的议员休息室、四个办公建筑。该建筑集合了康晚期作品中所有的类型学特质:理想集会建筑模式、层状空间、从结构中的结构到房间中的房间一致性、皮达内西式的迷宫空间。该建筑最明确的体现了康纯熟的类型操作技巧:类型的简化和重组。[i]

虽然平面关系在合同签订之后的两年之后就已经基本确定,但困扰康的问题却一直是国会建筑的顶部结构。康和包括奥古斯特·考曼顿特(August Komendant)在内的结构工程师合作先后实验了多种结构方案。在第一集的图集中仅仅重新制作了其中的三个方案分析(它们分别产生于1963年、1964年和1970年代初),其中包括最终实现的钢结构方案。有一条线索从一开始就非常明确,康和考曼顿特倾向于采用混凝土的折板结构形式,而不是框架形式。这一新思路既是考曼顿特战后独特的工程创建,也能够在诸如沙克生物研究所(Salk Institute, La Jolla, California)等多个项目中得到印证。

国会建筑具有多层次的空间结构,它既是类型之间重组的结果,又是康一直的命题。它是早期以唯一神派教堂(First Unitarian Church and School, Rochester, New York)为代表的理想集会建筑模式在深度上和竖向上的复杂化。在现代建筑中失去的进深逐渐被层状空间所代替,虽然没有交错的内部路径但回环的层次塑造了诗意的迷宫。



[i] 以上命题的论述请参看《静谧与光明之间——孟加拉国会综合体主体建筑的类型学分析》

 

 

参考文献:

[1]Robert McCarter. Louis I Kahn. London: Phaidon. 2005.

[2]H. Ronnner, S. Jhaveri. Louis I·Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974. Boston: Birkhauser. Jan.1,1988.

[3]David B. Brownlee. David G. De Long. Louis I Kahn In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli. Oct.5,1997.

[4]Kazi Khaleed Ashraf. Saif UI Haque. Sherebanglanagar: Louis Kahn and the Making of a Capital Complex. Dhaka: Loka Publication. Sep.9,2002.

[5]Vincent Scully. Jehovah On Olympus: Louis Kahn and the End of Modernism. Monografias de Arquitectura y Vivienda. Feb. 2001.

[6]Sarah Williams Ksiazek. Architectural Culture in the Fifties: Louis Kahn and the National Assembly Complex in Dhaka. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol.52. No.4. 1993.

[7]Sarah Williams Ksiazek. Critiques of Liberal Individualism: Louis Kahn’s Civic Project, 1947-57. Assemblage. No. 31. 1996.

 

 

图版说明:

2346,7由作者绘制.

1来自http://www.panoramio.com/photos/original/3192328.jpg.

5来自http://www.wallpaper.com/gallery/art/louis-kahn-dhaka/17050083/2#16516.

 

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