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在缝补之间:Vilanova de la Barca教堂 / AleaOlea architecture & landscape

翻译、编辑:易智丽(实习生);校对:李菁琳 | 2018-05-15 16:46 | 分享  

AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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Vilanova de la Barca教堂外观  摄影:Adrià Goula 

 

13世纪的哥特式建筑—— Vilanova de la Barca老教堂(西班牙,莱里达),在1936年由于西班牙内战的炮弹轰炸而遭到部分破坏,从此以后,老教堂一直是废墟状态,但保留有半圆形后殿、中庭和西立面片段。本项目旨在修复老教堂被毁坏的部分恢复其原始外观,并将旧有结构改造成新的多功能大厅结合。以期建立起新老元素、古今时代之间的建筑对话。

The Old Church of Vilanova de la Barca (Lleida, Spain) is a 13th century Gothic building that was partially demolished in 1936 as a result of the bombings during the Spanish Civil War. Since then, the church had been in a general state of ruin, preserving just its apse, some fragments of the naves and the west façade. The main aim of the project was to recover the rests of the ancient church and to restore its original appearance while transforming the old structure in a new multi-purpose hall. The project aims to establish an architectural dialogue between the old parts and the new elements, between the past and the present.

 

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Vilanova de la Barca老教堂遗址  摄影:Adrià Goula 

 

原教堂的巴西利卡式平面有两个中殿、一个侧廊和小型礼拜堂,总尺寸长22米,宽7米,室内高达10米。在东向部分,残存的结构保留有两个类似罗马式风格的侧扶壁,以及17世纪哥特式后殿中的肋拱顶。整个教堂由当地的方石建造,但由于天气状况和时间侵蚀破坏已大面积损坏。最近,原墓地遗址上一座独院家庭的施工建造活动严重影响到了教堂。

The original church has a basilica-styled floor plan with two naves, a presbytery and lateral chapels. The building is 22 meters long and 7 meters wide, with an interior space rising up to 10 meters. In the oriental part, the surviving construction preserved two impressive lateral buttresses, probably of a Romanesque origin, and a ribbed vault of the 17th century in a late Gothic style in the apse. The entire church was built with a stone ashlar of the area which was largely damaged by the weather conditions and the erosion of time. More recently, the church has been severely affected by the construction of an attached single family house in the former graveyard.

 

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平面图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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中殿  摄影:Adrià Goula

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侧廊  摄影:Adrià Goula

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后殿中的肋拱顶  摄影:Adrià Goula

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Vilanova de la Barca教堂夜景  摄影:Adrià Goula

 

该项目最重要的部分集中于围合元素:立面和屋顶。项目建造了网格状的新式砖立面,和带山花的阿拉伯瓦屋顶。整个新建筑设计成一个新型陶瓷外壳,轻柔地由残留的老墙体支撑着。封闭而无窗的新教堂外立面重现了老教堂的褶皱且凹凸不平的外观纹理,呈现了对原砖墙的视觉延续性和融合感。另一方面,室内墙面构思为白色多孔砖墙,强调了新老墙体之间的对比与断裂。在教堂外面,能够感知到老教堂的存在,而在内部,建筑留存着遗迹氛围和原教堂的神圣性。

The most important part of the project has focused on the covering elements: the façade and the roof. The project establishes a new brick façade based on a latticework texture and a new gabled Arab tile roof. The entire system is conceived as a new architectural ceramic shell that is gently supported over the remains of the ancient walls. The outer façade rises hermetic and opaque, with no windows, as a textured background that reproduces the wrinkled, dense and irregular texture of the stone ashlars of the ancient church, advocating for a visual continuity and integration with the original fabric. On the other hand, the inner façade is designed with a white perforated brick which reinforces the contrast and discontinuity between the old parts and the new elements. From the outside, the perception of the old church is restored, whereas in the inside, the building preserves the atmosphere of rest and introspection of the original sacred space.

 

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新老元素分解图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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被侵蚀的墙体  摄影:Adrià Goula

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砖墙修复过程  摄影:Adrià Goula

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瓦屋顶修复过程  摄影:Adrià Goula

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外部墙体  摄影:Adrià Goula

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室内墙体  摄影:Adrià Goula

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被修复的屋顶内部与墙体  摄影:Adrià Goula

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瓦屋顶与网格状新外墙同老教堂遗址融合  摄影:Adrià Goula


在紧邻教堂和独院家庭住宅的空隙空间中,设计了新的入口通往新教堂。老教堂后殿留下了一扇奇特的门,项目将该空间转化为新入口中庭,美化了这个长久被压抑的空间。凉棚、树木、地面植被以及水管打造了从入口到教堂内部的惬意景观效果。

The project offers a new alternative entrance to the building through the transformation of the area of the former graveyard, an adjacent space located between the church and the attached single family house. The project replaces the former access of the apse —a bizarre door introduced after the demolition of the church— and transforms this space into a new entrance patio, dignifying this area after years of being suffocated by the large adjacent dividing wall. The pergola, the trees, the carpeting vegetation and the water chain draw a new scenography that serves as an entrance threshold to the church’s interior.

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入口设计草图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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新入口  摄影:Adrià Goula

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入口中庭  摄影:Adrià Goula

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入口意象图  摄影:Adrià Goula

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总平面图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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立面图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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剖面图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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细部构造详图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

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顶灯详图  ©AleaOlea architecture & landscape

 

项目名称:The Old Church of Vilanova de la Barca

设计团队:AleaOlea architecture & landscape,Laia Renalias, Carles Serrano, Leticia Soriano, Roger Such

业主:Ajuntament de Vilanova de la Barca. 

委托者:Secretaria d’Habitatge i Millora Urbana. Generalitat de Catalunya, Ajuntament de Vilanova de la Barca, Incasol. Institut Català del Sòl

建造商:UTE Construccions Jaen-Vallés - Urcotex Inmobiliaria 

技术设计师:Baldomer Ric

结构工程师:Campanyà Vinyeta SL 

摄影:Adrià Goula 

建造年份:2014-2016

用地面积:410平方米

建筑面积:300平方米

项目地址:Raval de la Creu, 25. 25690 Vilanova de la Barca. Lleida, Spain.

建成日期:2016年4月

 


版权声明:本文由AleaOlea architecture & landscape授权发布,禁止以有方编辑后版本转载。

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作为整个孟加拉首都综合体的核心部分,国会建筑(National Assembly Building)的设计时间几乎同整个综合体同样长久。它完整的类型构成包括了九个经过简化的类型建筑:北面的入口花园、南面的清真寺、西面的来访贵宾室、东面的议员休息室、四个办公建筑。该建筑集合了康晚期作品中所有的类型学特质:理想集会建筑模式、层状空间、从结构中的结构到房间中的房间一致性、皮达内西式的迷宫空间。该建筑最明确的体现了康纯熟的类型操作技巧:类型的简化和重组。[i]

虽然平面关系在合同签订之后的两年之后就已经基本确定,但困扰康的问题却一直是国会建筑的顶部结构。康和包括奥古斯特·考曼顿特(August Komendant)在内的结构工程师合作先后实验了多种结构方案。在第一集的图集中仅仅重新制作了其中的三个方案分析(它们分别产生于1963年、1964年和1970年代初),其中包括最终实现的钢结构方案。有一条线索从一开始就非常明确,康和考曼顿特倾向于采用混凝土的折板结构形式,而不是框架形式。这一新思路既是考曼顿特战后独特的工程创建,也能够在诸如沙克生物研究所(Salk Institute, La Jolla, California)等多个项目中得到印证。

国会建筑具有多层次的空间结构,它既是类型之间重组的结果,又是康一直的命题。它是早期以唯一神派教堂(First Unitarian Church and School, Rochester, New York)为代表的理想集会建筑模式在深度上和竖向上的复杂化。在现代建筑中失去的进深逐渐被层状空间所代替,虽然没有交错的内部路径但回环的层次塑造了诗意的迷宫。



[i] 以上命题的论述请参看《静谧与光明之间——孟加拉国会综合体主体建筑的类型学分析》

 

 

参考文献:

[1]Robert McCarter. Louis I Kahn. London: Phaidon. 2005.

[2]H. Ronnner, S. Jhaveri. Louis I·Kahn Complete Work 1935-1974. Boston: Birkhauser. Jan.1,1988.

[3]David B. Brownlee. David G. De Long. Louis I Kahn In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli. Oct.5,1997.

[4]Kazi Khaleed Ashraf. Saif UI Haque. Sherebanglanagar: Louis Kahn and the Making of a Capital Complex. Dhaka: Loka Publication. Sep.9,2002.

[5]Vincent Scully. Jehovah On Olympus: Louis Kahn and the End of Modernism. Monografias de Arquitectura y Vivienda. Feb. 2001.

[6]Sarah Williams Ksiazek. Architectural Culture in the Fifties: Louis Kahn and the National Assembly Complex in Dhaka. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol.52. No.4. 1993.

[7]Sarah Williams Ksiazek. Critiques of Liberal Individualism: Louis Kahn’s Civic Project, 1947-57. Assemblage. No. 31. 1996.

 

 

图版说明:

2346,7由作者绘制.

1来自http://www.panoramio.com/photos/original/3192328.jpg.

5来自http://www.wallpaper.com/gallery/art/louis-kahn-dhaka/17050083/2#16516.

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