复刻两万年前的记忆：Lascaux IV壁画博物馆 / Snøhetta原源 | 2018-01-31 19:50 |
拉斯科洞窟岩画于1940年被发现，并于1948年向游客开放。然而开放不久后，大量游客的到访增加了暴露在开放环境中的壁画的保存难度。1963年，为保护岩画，拉斯科岩洞被永久关闭。这处遗址1979年被列入世界遗产名录，2010年，在洞穴发现70周年纪念之时，国际洞穴艺术中心项目（the International Centre for Cave Art project）宣布了4号壁画博物馆的建造项目。
The Lascaux Caves paintings were first discovered in 1940, and opened to visitors in 1948. Soon after the opening, however, the mass influx of visitors and the exposure to exterior elements had begun to degrade the paintings. In 1963, the original Lascaux Caves were permanently closed to the public to preserve the extraordinary art from irreparable damage brought on by its overwhelming popularity, and the fragile site was granted UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1979. In 2010, for the 70th anniversary of the cave discovery, the International Centre for Cave Art project, Lascaux IV was announced.
拉斯科洞窟4号壁画博物馆位于两处独特地形之间，一侧是有着茂密森林的山坡，另一侧是农业山谷地带。设计将博物馆视为地景的一个切入点（a fine cut in the landscape），邀请游客进入一个奇妙的史前世界。正是在此处，两万年前的史前艺术家创造了非凡的岩画。
The new Lascaux IV Caves Museum is situated at the intersection of two unique landscapes, between a densely-forested, protected hillside and the agricultural Vézère valley. Snøhetta’s design conceives the museum as a fine cut in the landscape, inviting visitors into a curious world of prehistory. It was here, deep in the caves below, that prehistoric artists produced extraordinary cave paintings over 20,000 years ago.
As a museum and interpretation centre, the project has opened up the possibility of visiting Lascaux, the most spectacular of all painted caves, to a new generation of visitors. The highlight is the facsimile cave that allows visitors to experience this mysterious environment, to touch the contours and textures of the stone and contemplate the ancient artworks. Lascaux IV marks the beginning of a new phase in the celebration of the knowledge of this unique site and its cultural heritage. Through a holistic approach that considers the landscape, the architecture, the interior, and the scenography as a whole, the design aims to create an experience that educates visitors on the significance of the site while revealing the original wonder and mystery of its discovery.
Lascaux IV is created as a fissure in the landscape. The roof features a gentle broken line, echoing the hill’s undulating form. Across its length, the façade ranges from transparent to opaque, maintaining an inseparable relationship with the exterior, offering hints of what is contained within. Lascaux IV is placed in a transitional zone between untouched forest and agricultural land. By using the exact border that does not belong to either of these two vastly different landscapes, the architecture aims to be a contribution to the location and landscape, facilitating a dialogue between the two contrasting landscapes. The building’s form and materiality have been given a sober expression, within any excess, speaking to the elements of the surrounding nature. In this way, the building aims to reflect the curious spirit of the original caves and context, as well as to stand as a grand representation of the future heritage of the area.
The walls, roof, façade strip, and both interior and exterior flooring are all made in the same architectural concrete, giving the building a monolithic expression. The raw, unfinished treatment of the material evokes the mineral world, the rock of the hills, and the cave. The project’s second predominant materiality, glass, defines the façade and the roof of the orientation space. The transparency of the façade creates a direct visual connection between the exterior and the interior, inviting the public in. The interplay between the glass and the concrete produces a series of contrasting effects, between opaqueness and transparency, light and shade, incomplete and sophisticated, rough and smooth. Their reciprocity creates balance and gives the facility a contemporary feel.
游客的体验路径经过精心的设计。从大堂开始，乘坐电梯到屋顶可欣赏Montignac 和 Vézère 山谷壮丽全景的眺望台。而后通过一个平缓斜坡向下，进入“岩洞”的入口。景观的变化和逐渐下降的曲折动线让游客感受到时空的变化，复刻着类似于1940年洞穴发现时的体验。
The visitor experience is carefully sequenced. Beginning in the lobby, visitors ascend by a lift to the belvedere out on the roof, where they can enjoy a magnificent panoramic view of Montignac and the Vézère Valley. They then descend a gentle slope towards the cave facsimile, which follows the incline of the roof towards the edge of the forest until reaching the entrance to the replica. The winding path through the landscape and gradual descent back down to grade facilitates a mental transition through time and space, creating an experience similar to that of the cave’s first discoverers in 1940.
The design of the building has been shaped by two principal sources of natural light. One is created by a lateral cut in the landscape that lifts and separate the two planes, pulling them apart to generate a vertical facade where the light enters the building horizontally. The other is a deep cut along the spine of the building, which reveals the horizontal glass surface of a skylight and allows light in vertically. Throughout the course of a day, visitors experience the various shades and intensities of light that are filtered through the roof glass and the façade.
As visitors make their way through the building, these changing light conditions subtly highlight the various functions and atmospheres of each space. From the darkness in the caves replicas, to the open sky in the garden, to the shadow-play in the orientation zone, visitors progress through a sequence of lighting conditions that is carefully attuned to how the eye responds to lightness and darkness.
At night, the exterior landscape is framed by the warm glow of the artificial lighting within, forming a discrete volume of light that describes the shape of the entrance façade and the shape of the spine.
作为 Vézère 山谷中引人注目的现代艺术场馆，4号壁画博物馆以全新的体验方式展现着史前艺术作品，并提供了深入了解场地遗产的途径。现代的几何形制和物质性使访客意识到他们欣赏的是复制品，但却不会因此削弱展品的感染力。
As a striking, contemporary addition to the landscape of the Vézère Valley, Lascaux IV frames a new experience of some of the nest known examples of prehistoric art, and offers profound new ways of understanding the rich heritage of the site. The contemporary geometry and materiality also counters the potential trap of artifice: allowing the visitor to understand that they are in the presence of a reproduction, without distracting from the power of its impact.
The exterior reflects the contours of the limestone geology and reveals a dramatic exhibition experience designed to transport the visitor into a cave complex complete with tunnels, chambers lit by shafts of broken sunlight, and paintings that are mediated by state of the art technology and scenographic techniques.
Location: Montignac, France
Address: Avenue de Lascaux, 24290 Montignac, France
Client: Conseil Général de la Dordogne
Ground surface: 11400 m2
Total oor surface: 8365 m2
Total plot size: 53065 m2
Project duration: 2012 – 2016
Opening date: December 15, 2016
Landscape architect: Snøhetta
Interior architect: Snøhetta
Scenography: Casson Mann
Associate architect: SRA Architectes
Associate architect, study phase: Duncan Lewis Scape Architecture